Reconstruction Essays (Examples)

Filter results by:

 

View Full Essay

Free The Story of Emancipation

Words: 612 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88202301

He writes, "In Louisiana, South Carolina, and Virginia - the home of large free black populations - men who had never known slavery dominated among econstruction officeholders. For the South as a whole, however, the black political leadership arose out of local slave communities" (Foner 136). He shows the struggles, victories, and defeats the blacks faced, and helps the reader see why econstruction was so important to our history. He also believes that there is still a type of econstruction going on today, in other ways, which is another reason he feels it is so important.

Foner's book belongs on the shelves of any reader interested in Civil War history, because he explains his ideas effectively and writes so anyone can understand his ideas and conclusions. It effectively uses illustrations to help make some of the key points, (such as how blacks were viewed historically during econstruction and beyond), and…… [Read More]

References

Foner, Eric. Forever Free: The Story of Emancipation and Reconstruction. New York: Knopf, 2005.
View Full Essay

U S History Ordeal by Fire

Words: 619 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32472282

Johnson rebuked generals and Congress continued to pass into legislation laws Johnson had vetoed. Johnson's antics caused more and more supporters to abandon him, and impeachment became a very real concern.

Congress voted to impeach Johnson in 1868 after he violated the Tenure of Office Act and tried to remove Secretary of War Stanton, but the Senate did not convict him. During this time, a struggle between the court system and Congress also developed, which in effect allowed the court to send a message that econstruction was not a constitutional problem but a political one. Ultimately, the power struggle showed the viability of the Constitution and American federalism. While the struggles were great, the Supreme Court, Congress, and the President all survived the crisis and supported the separation of power that separate the three branches of government.

By driving a wedge between the Congress, the judiciary, and the presidency, Andrew…… [Read More]

Reference

McPhearson, J.M. (2001). Ordeal by fire: The Civil War and reconstruction. New York: McGraw Hill.
View Full Essay

Arnold T & Shelbourne K

Words: 2152 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42250538

. he American Journal of Sports Medicine, 35(3), 384-394.

2 groups of 70 patients with patellar tendon and hamstring tendon autografts were assessed 2 years following surgery. No significant differences were noted in terms of activity, although more patients in the P group experienced pain and loss of motion for a longer span of time than did patients in the hamstring tendon group. On the whole, patients with hamstring tendon grafts performed similarly to patients with patellar tendon grafts although more beneficial results seemed to incline towards the groups that had experienced hamstring tendon graft replacements.

Monaco, E., Labianca, L., Conteduca, F., De Carli, a., & Ferretti, a. (2007). Double bundle or single bundle plus extraarticular tenodesis in acl reconstruction?: a caos study. Knee Surgery, Sports raumatology, Arthroscopy, 15(10), 1168-1174.

he goal of this study was to evaluate the effect on the internal rotation of the tibia of lateral reconstruction…… [Read More]

This technical study was intended to measure the in situ force applied to the ACL during load and injury. The medial collateral ligament (MCL), anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), posterolateral structures (PLS), and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) were measured in response to 110 N. anterior tibial loading. Changes in knee kinematics associated with ACL deficiency and combined MCL and ACL deficiency were also evaluated. Findings demonstrated that impact is equally shared between the various bone ligaments and anterior bones during tibial loading of the knee leading researchers to conclude that the MCL and osteochondral surfaces may also be at significant risk during ACL injury.

Smith, F., Rosenlund, E., Aune, a., MacLean, J., & Hillis, S. (2004). Subjective functional assessments and the return to competitive sport after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. . British Journal of Sports Medicine, 38(3), 279-284.

The objective was to examine return to competitive sport and general recuperation of ligaments within 12 months of ACL reconstruction. A postal questionnaire 43 months after surgery was mailed to 109 selected athlete patients, 77 of whom responded. The Cincinnati sports activity scale (CSAS) and Cincinnati sports function scales were used as instruments. 62 patients had returned to activity 12 months following treatment, whilst 55 patients had regained their former level of ability. 12 patients admitted to major problems, whilst 38 patients were actively involved in sports at least four times a week. Competitive and male patients had higher scores at restoration than did non-athletic and female patients respectively. Results supported the researchers' hypothesis.
View Full Essay

1920s to the 1950's &

Words: 1136 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22001904

Because they lived in constant fear that they would fall victim to white aggression, African-Americans in the South were virtually powerless and had little to no chances to get involved in restructuring the Southern community. In spite of the fact that Republicans were initially devoted to helping black people in the South as they struggled to take advantage of the rights they were granted, matters slowly but surely changed and Northerners became less interested in fighting for the African-American cause, since they believed that black people could not assist the Republican Party in any way.

During the Second Reconstruction period, numerous politicians seized the opportunity of getting voters from the South and thus realized that it was essential for them to support African-American enfranchisement. The Kennedy Administration in particular decided that black people played a very important role in assisting the country's local and international dealings. The international context regarding…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Valelly, Richard M. (2004). "The two reconstructions: the struggle for Black enfranchisement." University of Chicago Press.
View Full Essay

Anterior Cruciate Ligament or ACL

Words: 2193 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30046943

esearchers believe that incorporating evidence-based prevention methods can decrease the incidence of ACL ruptures, but an understanding of the etiology and mechanisms of sports injury are a necessary to do this (Posthumus, 2009).

The highest prevalence of extrinsic ACL injuries tends to occur in organized sports especially adolescents participating in pivoting type sports such as football, basketball, and team handball (Bahr & Krosshaug, 2005). In addition to any intrinsic factors and adolescent may have, or predisposing factors, environmental factors surrounding organized sports can also play a role in injury. For example, weather conditions (slippery surface), type of surface sport is played on (grass vs. pavement), proper footwear, and protective bracing (Posthumus, 2009).

A growing concern regarding these injuries and the populations that incur them is that these injuries increase the risk of osteoarthritis (Bahr & Krosshaug, 2005). In fact, after ten years, around half of all people that have suffered…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Ageberg, E., Thombe, R., Neeter, C., Gravare Silbernagel, K., Roos, EM. Patients With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Treated With Training and Surgical Reconstruction or Training Only: A Two to Five-Year Followup. Arthritis Care & Research. 2008; 59(12):1773-79.

Bahr, R., Krosshaug, T. Understanding injury mechanisms: a key component of preventing injuries in sport. Br J. Sports Med. 2005; 39:324 -- 329.

Grindstaff, TL., Hammill, RR., Tuzson, AE., Hertel, J. Neuromuscular Control Training Programs and Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Rates in Female Athletes: A Numbers-Needed-to-Treat Analysis. Journal of Athletic Training. 2006; 41(4):450 -- 456.

Health Information Publications (2011). What is the anterior cruciate ligament? eHealthMD retrieved from  http://ehealthmd.com
View Full Essay

Manning Marable in His Book

Words: 1301 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26842588

"

By 1967, Black Power had become the dominant ideology of black youth as well as many individuals in the working and middle classes. King's assassination confirmed the growing nationalistic belief against nonviolence. The greatest challenge came from the Black Panther Party and its ten-point program of radical reform. The U.S. government were alarmed by these demands, and agencies such as the FB stepped up their targeting of radical black groups.

n Chapter 6, Marable analyzes the political status and labor movements of this time. He emphasizes the lack of support for the full incorporation of black laborers -- the American Federation of Teachers, for example, opposed the establishment of affirmative action programs to regulate fairness in the labor market. The Longshoresman's Association nixed equal status of black members, and the Operating Engineers Union imposed physical violence on black graduates of their apprenticeship program and therefore blocked participation of blacks…… [Read More]

In his epilogue, Marable concludes: "American history has repeated itself, in regard to its interpretation of the pursuit of biracial democracy: the fist time as tragedy, the second time as catastrophe. In the aftermath of the First Reconstruction, white American historians attempted to portray the democratic experiment of 1965-77 as a complete disaster." After the Second Reconstruction, a similar process of historical revisionism took place -- led by President Reagan, who attempted to undermine the last vestiges of institutional equality.

Does this mean that the Second Reconstruction was a failure? "Our judgment," he says, "would be a resounding and unconditional 'no.'" Jim Crow is dead, the American State is committed to equal opportunity under law, the black consumer market has grown considerably. However, as an Afro-American and a socialist, Marable admits he cannot write his book without some political comment concerning those in poverty and many of the crimes against blacks still being committed. "The story of the Second Reconstruction has no moral, other than the simple truth that an oppressed people will not remain oppressed forever." Several basic ideals have sustained black courage: democracy, equality and freedom.

However, "given the evolution of capitalism, racism and democracy in America, a truly anti-racist democratic state must of necessity also be a socialist democracy....The demand for racial parity within a state apparatus and economy, which is based on institutional racism and capital accumulation at the expense of blacks and labor is flawed from the outset." A small group of black elites has formed, a small amount of blacks have been appointed in the government, but the now the passage of power must be given to those who create all wealth -- the working class. This will only be realized with the rise of the Third Reconstruction that seeks the empowerment of the laboring classes and all oppressed.
View Full Essay

African-Americans in Major Historical Events Although African-Americans

Words: 1019 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76650046

African-Americans in Major Historical Events

Although African-Americans have been seen as being the catalysts of major historical conflicts such as the Sectional Crisis, the Civil ar, and Reconstruction, they actually impacted these events. For example during the Sectional Crisis, African-American presence in the U.S. Courts, as they sued for their freedom, brought the injustice that African-Americans faced to the national spotlight. In addition, during the Civil ar, African-Americans' presence was widespread as they fought on the field and worked behind the scenes. Finally, African-Americans shaped the period of Reconstruction as they continued their fight for equality through their presence in government politics. This essay will discuss these specific contributions of African-Americans during each of these eras.

The Dred Scott Decision

The Sectional Crisis was the period preceding the Civil ar that began in the 1840s and peaked during the 1850s. During the period of the Sectional divide contributions of African-Americans…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Murphy, Heather K. "African-Americans in the Civil War." Web. 14, Dec. 2010.

United States v. Dred Scott, 60 U.S. 393 (1856). Web.

Worth, Richard and Schwarz, Philip. African-Americans During Reconstruction. New York,

New York: Infobase Publishing, 2006. Print.
View Full Essay

African-American Westward Migration

Words: 3585 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26760503

African-Americans and Western Expansion

Prior to the 1960s and 1970s, very little was written about black participation in Western expansion from the colonial period to the 19th Century, much less about black and Native American cooperation against slavery. This history was not so much forbidden or censored as never written at all, or simply ignored when it was written. In reality, blacks participated in all facets of Western expansion, from the fur trade and cattle ranching to mining and agriculture. There were black cowboys and black participants in the Indian Wars -- on both sides, in fact. Indeed, the argument over slavery in the Western territories was one of the key factors in breaking up the Union in the 1850s and leading to the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860. In the past thirty years, much of the previously unwritten and unrecorded history of the Americas since 1492 has been…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Foner, Eric. Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War. Oxford University Press, 1970, 1995.

Foner, Philip S. History of Black Americans. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1983.

Katz, William Loren. The Black West: A Documentary and Pictorial History of the African-American Role in the Westward Experience of the United States. NY: Random House, Inc., 2005.

Katz, William Loren. Black Indians: A Hidden Heritage. NY: Simon & Schuster, 1986.
View Full Essay

International Conflict Resolution for Policymakers

Words: 2740 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34473124

States like Bangladesh, Egypt, and Indonesia have severe challenges due to the risks of flooding, drought, and deforestation. Recently Bangladesh was hit by a powerful Typhoon (same as a hurricane), which caused thousands of deaths and was so severe it was beyond the capability of its weak government to deal with the disaster.

The U.S. Department of State (DOS) has been working for many years to try and help with a solution for the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. The violence between these two states has been going on for many years, and numerous previous attempts to find a lasting peaceful solution have failed. In a document called "A Performance-Based roadmap to a Permanent Two-State Solution to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict," the DOS plan includes three phases. The first is the most crucial and pivotal - an end to the "terror and violence" and an attempt to normalize Palestinian life - in conjunction with…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Textbook Chapter 8 "Post-War Reconstruction."

Dixon, Robyn. (2007, Dec. 15). Zimbabwe may shatter, but Mugabe holds firm. The Los

Angeles Times, p. a-1 - a-5.

Foreign Policy. (2007). Failed States Index 2007. The Fund for Peace and Carnegie
View Full Essay

Inductive Argument Analysis Original Argument

Words: 1740 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29882421



It might be said that, had Lincoln not been elected, the war might have been put off by a few years, and then a solution might perhaps have been reached. However, as has been demonstrated, the country was moving inexorably toward war and no other solution would work. If the war had been put off by a few years, the result would more than likely have been even more terrible and bloody than it was. General Grant was of the opinion that the war was inevitable. "The Southern rebellion was largely the outgrowth of the Mexican war," he wrote in his Personal Memoirs, in accord with his belief that the Mexican-American War was the result of the South's attempts to extend slavery into Mexican-controlled Texas, "Nations, like individuals, are punished for their transgressions. We got our punishment in the most sanguinary and expensive war in modern times." Grant would then…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Slavery the Institution of Slavery

Words: 899 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22369193

By 1861 the political and economic disagreement concerning the issue of slavery came to a head and the civil war began. During the civil war slaves fought in both the confederate and union armies.

In 1862 and 1863 respectively President Lincoln issued executive orders referred to as the emancipation proclamation. These proclamations basically set slaves in the southern states free.

By 1865 the civil war came to an end and by July of 1865 most slaves were freed.

As it relates to economics, it is important to understand that the establishment and perpetuation of slavery was always about monetary benefit. Slaves provided land owners with access to abundant and free labor. Not having to pay people for labor results in increased profitability. During the 1600's colonist first began to understand the economic benefits associated with slavery and slaves became more valuable than indentured servants (Boskin). The value of slaves increased…… [Read More]

References

Boskin J. Into Slavery: Racial Decisions in the Virginia Colony J.B. Lippincott Company Philadelphia: 1976.

Reconstruction and its Aftermath. 9 Dec. 2007.  http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart5.html
View Full Essay

Voice of Freedom

Words: 2226 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29141516

Voice of Freedom

In chapter 15 it deals a lot with resistance to slavery and of course one of these was the best known of all slave rebellions which involved was Nat Turner, who happened to be a slave preacher. This chapter was also devoted in describing the conspiracies that went into the uprisings and the rebellions that actually changed the face of slavery. This chapter gave a very vivid detail in exploring what went on behind the scenes in regards to these revolts coming together. ith that said, this essay will explore this chapter and talk about the significance of the voice of freedom.

After the Civil ar, the definitions of freedom surely changed for nation, for the freedmen, and for southern whites in a lot of ways. Southern white were fearful. It was apparent that they never wanted slavery to end because it had a huge effect on…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arts, Martin. "The Liberty Haggadah: From Slavery to Freedom. From Exile to Independence." 1-90. Chicago: Matan Arts; Hebrew - English edition, 2011.

Chambers, Glenn A. "From slavery to servitude: The African and Asian struggle for freedom in Latin America and the Caribbean." History 21, no. 9 (2008): 23-45.

de, la Fuente. "From slaves to citizens? Tannenbaum and the debates on slavery, emancipation, and race relations in Latin America." International Labor and Working Class History 77, no. 1 (2010): 154-173.

Foner, Eric. "Give Me Liberty!: An American History." 1-584. New York City W.W. Norton & Company; Seagull Third Edition, 2009.
View Full Essay

Civil War Culture Among the

Words: 383 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43755117

In the North, however, abolitionists groups began to see slavery another way. Finally, when Lincoln -- who was perceived as anti-slavery -- was elected, the South fought to exercise what it believed were its states rights by seceding.

After the war concluded, these cultural and economic differences were not gone with the wind. Instead, they were prominent during reconstruction and continue to characterize the culture of the North and South today. McElrath's timeline of reconstruction shows several attempts at making the South racially equal, which can be defined as one of the goals of reconstruction. The Civil Rights Bill and 14th amendment were methods by which this was accomplished. However, Civil ar era culture has left such an impact on the region as to make race relations in the American South still stereotypically tenacious.

orks Cited

Kelly, Martin. "Top Five Causes of the Civil ar." About.com 2009. 26 July 2009.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kelly, Martin. "Top Five Causes of the Civil War." About.com 2009. 26 July 2009.



McElrath, Jessica. "Timeline of the Reconstruction Era." About.com. 2009. 26 July 2009.

View Full Essay

Civil War Most of Us

Words: 4049 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55865581

In some ways, the Civil War was the analogue of the Terror for Americans: It was the bloodthirsty incestuous violence that allowed the nation to move onward to a full embrace of democracy, joining itself to Europe as the world began to tip toward democratic ideas and ideals.

White Supremacy

Stephen Kantrowitz's biography of Benjamin Tillman demonstrates how he can be seen as a symbol for an entire cohort of Southerners of his generation, people (mostly but not exclusively men) who could neither understand nor tolerate the new order that had formally instituted itself after Emancipation. They could not understand a world in which black men were suddenly their legal equals. Tillman, and others like him, lived in a world that told them that blacks had to be treated like equals even though many white Southerners did not see their black compatriots as even being fully human.

This set up…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

International Disasters and Humanitarian Law

Words: 638 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19231916

International Disasters and Humanitarian Law

Great infrastructure damage and social dislocation have been common consequence of natural disasters and social disasters for example wars. The aims of relief and post-disaster reconstruction comprises of:

Instant physical relief of victims

eduction of social dislocation

estoration of a function of social organization and reparation of physical infrastructure

The major disaster or wars international actors are United Nations agencies and ed Cross Movement.

International policies and laws have played a greater impact in helping shift disaster relief and post-disaster reconstruction in that, whenever there is major disaster there is immediate establishment of a rescue and recovery command center under the body of the United Nations, ed Cross and affected governments; this aid in supervision of relief efforts participating foreign military such as U.S. forces being part of it. For example for the case where there was establishment of U.S. dominated command centre set at…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Jonathan Winters, (2009) combating Corruption in the Multilateral Development Banks'

Paul Wodlfowitz, (2006) press conference, U.S.Pacific command, Indonesia 16 January
View Full Essay

Slavery the Civil War and the Preservation

Words: 2726 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76629825

Slavery, The Civil ar and the Preservation of the Union

In the face of oppression and harsh treatment, slaves formed communities as a coping mechanism and to resist the belief that they were simply property. Members of these slave communities came together often to sing, talk, and even plan covert plots to runaway or sabotage the system in which they were living. Slaves married, had children and worked to keep their families together. Families were often broken up as members were sold off to different masters, but when a family was kept together, nuclear families of two parents and their children working for the same master were common. It was in these communities that countless elements of African-American slave culture were passed on for generations, including skills such as medical care, hunting, and fishing as well as how to act in front of whites, hiding their feelings and escaping punishment.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Buchanan, James." Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000. Encyclopedia.com. 14 December 2002. http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/B/BuchannJ1.asp.

Lincoln, Abraham," Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000. Encyclopedia.com. 14 December 2002. http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/L/LincolnA1.asp.

Missouri Compromise." Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000. Encyclopedia.com. 14 December 2002. http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/m/missrc1omp.asp.

The Terrible Transformation." Africans in America. PBS Online. 14 December 2002.  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/title.html .
View Full Essay

Issue of Race in America After the Civil War

Words: 1191 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93545790

Race After the Civil War

lack or white, which is the color of your skin?

Some time in history, the color of a person's skin had been an essential element in his life's journey. To be socially accepted, people sees to it that you have the right skin color. ut which is the right color? Does there exist a right color of skin? This issue seems to be a very narrow and senseless matter that our ancestors were implicated centuries and years ago. Especially after the Civil War, the element of race became an issue in every aspect of their daily lives.

Unfortunate to the discrimination of race in the society of man in America after the Civil War are the black colored people. They were considered and grouped among the minorities who were prohibited with equal rights, not by law, but by human nature of men. lack colored people…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Douglass, Frederick. The Color Line.

African-American History. 26 July 2003.

http://afroamhistory.about.com/library/bldouglass_color_line.htm

Fitzhugh, George. Sociology for the South or The Failure of Free Society.
View Full Essay

US Industrialization in the 19th Century

Words: 1420 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29870365



Native Americans also experienced significant changes to their way of life during this era. The railroads brought more settlers to their land, and cities began to arise in the West. The result was increasing conflict -- and many massacres orchestrated by government forces, as Western Native Americans, who had limited contact with settlers to this point, saw their lands inundated and their way of life threatened, so say nothing of the disease. The conflict, disease and loss of this way of life permanently gutted Native American societies -- they might have been the biggest losers of the industrialization age their way of life all but wiped out.

Working Americans

Working Americans were more likely to work in a factory under dangerous conditions. They lost the dignity in their work -- they were not longer artisans but merely cogs in somebody else's machine. They were more likely to live in tenements…… [Read More]

References

Schultz. (no date). Chapters 16-18.
View Full Essay

Industrialization and Social Reformers African-Americans

Words: 1533 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43787487

Many Americans insisted on moralizing poverty and housing conditions.

One of the responses to the revelations was to build company towns, like Pullman, Illinois which provided decent housing and amenities to workers in the Pullman train car factory. This project appears to have been successful initially, but a debilitating strike caused by high rent and low wages destroyed the town and other companies were no longer willing to follow this model (Ibid. At 134). Still a bigger obstacle to widespread reform was the ubiquitous American reverence for private property rights. Notwithstanding the early New York measures, Americans were loath to deny the landlords unfettered control over their private property (Ibid. At 135).

Although the progressive era as a whole saw great advancement in public health and safety requirements, there was only marginal success regarding housing reform. Many reforms that affected how people lived were undertaken in the name of public…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Buhle, Paul. The Legacy of the IWW. Monthly Review, Vol. 57, Issue 2 (06/2005), pp.: 13 -- 27.

Chudacoff, Howard P. And Judith E. Smith. The Evolution of American Urban Society. Prentice Hall, Inc.: Upper Saddle River, NJ (2000).

Hoffman, Alexander von. The Origins of American Housing Reform. Joint Center for Housing Studies, Harvard University (August 1998).
View Full Essay

Effects of the Post World War II Occupation on Japan's Government and Politics

Words: 3528 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82503553

ar and Occupation: The Effects of the U.S. Occupation on Japan's Government and Politics

The recent change in the American foreign policy direction which has seen the replacement of its traditional anti-colonialist tilt by the neo-conservative belief of guided nation building evokes a lot of interest in the history of United State's occupation of post world war II Japan. Although each such occupation is different -- the political, social and cultural environment as well as the historical context of every war and country being different-- it is interesting to study how the Americans handled the re-building of Japan in the post-orld ar II period.

There is no doubt that the United State government's influence in shaping the future of Japan was overwhelming. In fact it would not be wrong to state that Japan's current political and economic status as a first world power is a direct result of the guiding…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bell, P.M.H. "The World Since 1945: An International History.": New York: Oxford University Press, 2001

Dower, John W. "Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II." New York: Norton/Free Press:, 1999

Dower, John W. "Why Iraq is not Japan." Mercury News. Apr. 27, 2003. July 2, 2003. http://www.bayarea.com/mld/mercurynews/news/editorial/5728557.htm?template=contentModules/printstory.jsp

Gordon, Bill. "The Allied Occupation of Japan." May 2000. July 2, 2003  http://wgordon.web.wesleyan.edu/papers/alliedoc.htm
View Full Essay

Role of International Institutions in

Words: 2883 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3385677

The education sector with all its capacities for delivering knowledge and training has an important role to play in the rebuilding process. Finally, because education intersects with almost every sector and theme in peace-building, it warrants its own examination of the competencies, skills and resources needed to make the kinds of contributions demanded of it." (Ibid)

Further stated is that "Formal education covers the knowledge, skills and training obtained through primary, secondary and tertiary institutions such as schools, colleges and universities. Non-formal education is generally of a short-term duration and is geared towards upgrading of skills and introducing new knowledge."(Ibid)

In the work entitled: "Overview of Post-Conflict Recovery and Reconstruction: Experiences and Lessons Learnt" it is related that in the early 1980', "Somalia could boast 'the lowest GNP, the lowest physical quality of life index, the lowest per capital public education expenditure, the higher infant mortality per;1,000 births, and the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Rose, P. & Greeley, M. (2006) Education in Fragile States: Capturing Lessons and Identifying Good Practice. Online available at http:///www.ineesite.org/core_references/Education_in_Fragile_States.pdf

Bekalo, S.; Brophy, M.; & Welford, G (2006) Post-Conflict Education development in Somaliland. Togdheer Online available at http://www.togdheer.com/education/education.shtml

Restoration of Hope and Peace: The Amoud Initiative. Medicine and Surgery. Amoud University. Online available at:

Boyden, J. And Ryder, P. (1996) Implementing the Right to Education in Areas of Armed Conflict. Oxford Journal Jun 1996, Online available at  http://www.essex.ac.uk/armedcon/story_id/000021.htm
View Full Essay

Joshua 24 Is First of

Words: 3138 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50454269

Here we have an account of the definitive formation of the twelve-tribe league incorporating people who may well have had ancient ties with Israelite tribes but who only now pledge their undivided allegiance to the God of Israel."

Thus, Shechem is, according to Hillers, one of the most important place for the Covenant renewal, since it was the first that was witnessed by the united Israelite tribes.

John Van Seters, on the other hand, offers a different explanation for the origins of the text in Joshua 24. He concludes that the resemblances in form between the Covenant at Shechem and the Deuteronomy Covenant makes it plausible that the Joshua 24 has to be just an addition to the Deuteronomy work:

There is only one solution to this dilemma and that is that Joshua 24.1-27 was composed as an addition to the Dtr. work. It is post-Dtr. And was inserted before…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boling, Robert G., and G. Ernest Wright. Joshua. AB 6. Garden City, New York.:Doubleday, 1982.

Harris, J. Gordon, Cheryl a. Brown and Michael S. Moore. Joshua, Judges, Ruth. NIBC. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 2000.

Nelson, Richard J. Joshua: A Commentary.Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1997.

Nicholson, Ernest God and His People: Covenant and Theology in the Old Testament. Clarendon Press. Oxford. 1986.
View Full Essay

Macroevolutionary Transition of Cetaceans Back to the

Words: 1432 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95822468

Macroevolutionary Transition of Cetaceans Back to the Sea

Today, one of the best known examples of macroevolution is that which can be speculated upon and observed in relation to marine mammals. ales, porpoises and dolphins, members of the Catacean order, share a number of distinctions in the marine ecosystem, not the least of which is their high intelligence. Additionally, that these species are mammals that must ascend to the surface for respiration has underscored long-standing zoological speculation as to their origins. As the question of macroevolution suggests, these origins may well denote that the species in question originated on land.

According to the research by Bajpai et al. (2009), the speculative nature of the macroevolutionary theory was given some of its strongest evidence to date by fossil finds in the Indian and Pakistan region. These have suggested that whales in particular can be shown to have evolved into aquatic creatures…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Bajpai, S.; Thewissen, J.G. & Sahni, A. (2009). The origin and early evolution of whales: macroevolution documented on the Indian subcontinent. Journal of Bioscience, 34(5), 673-685.

Barton, N.H.; Briggs, D.E.G.; Eisen, J.A.; Goldstein, D.B. & Patel, N.H. (2007). Evolution. Cold Springs Harbor Press.

Meek, P. (1996). Natural Selection. University of Michigan.

Moran, L. (1993). Random Genetic Drift. The Talk Origins Archive.
View Full Essay

Constraints of Blacks Discussion the Geographic Spaces

Words: 1167 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86897351

Constraints of Blacks

Discussion the geographic spaces and constraints of Blacks in the United States between 1865 and 2010.

Reconstruction Period

Throughout the reconstruction period several acts were passed that were intended to integrate African-Americans or freedmen as they were referred to in the period in society. Despite the initial goals of the legislative acts, African-Americans faced a significant antagonism from many whites in the south who did not agree to the new freedoms for the former slaves. The first and arguably most significant step move towards a more equal and free society was the 13th amendment to the Constitution.

This amendment was passed in 1865 and was shortly after was followed by the passage of the civil rights act in 1866 and the 14th amendment. The underlying purpose of 13th and 14th amendments as well as the civil rights act of 1866 was to officially designate African-Americans citizens by…… [Read More]

Late Twentieth Century through the Present

Martin Luther King was a Baptist minister who became an icon for civil rights across America. He raised public awareness of the civil rights cause but this had a negative effect on his personal life as during the boycott King's house was bombed and during the campaign he was arrested. The importance of Martin Luther King's role in achieving civil rights could not be understated. However, it is less well-known that E.D Nixon, a African-American civil rights leader and union organizer who played a crucial role in organizing the famous Montgomery Bus Boycott and furthering the movement. However, it is MLK's eloquence and conviction of speech that served as a rallying point for millions of sympathetic individuals to protest racial injustices.

While the present circumstances for an African-American in the United States is still fraught with hardships, there is still much progress that is continually being made. In 2008 the United States elected their first African-American president; a feat that many predicted would not be possible until well into the future. However, at the same time there are a plethora of challenges that still face the African-American communities. In many of the urban centers, such as Chicago for example, there is still a significant amount of segregation. Furthermore, African-Americans generally have less employment opportunities, lower pay rates, higher incarnation rates, and fewer opportunities for education than their racial counterparts. Therefore, even though an enormous amount of progress has been made, there is still much more work to be done.
View Full Essay

Slum Upgrading Cross-Cutting Issues

Words: 849 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29514943

Cross-Cutting Issues egarding Slum Upgrading

Property ights and Security of Tenure

Secure of tenure, according to Cities Alliance (2014), "is at the very center of slum upgrading." As Cities Alliance further points out, lack of some kind of legal tenure security makes the circumstances of those who reside in slums highly uncertain. This is particularly the case given that evictions could be instituted at any moment. It is important to note that people are not likely to invest in permanent structures if they fear eviction -- meaning that the structures they put up will be largely shoddy and meant to serve temporary shelter needs. However, once people are assured of the right to keep their homes, they develop "a sense of permanence and realize that they can sell their house and recoup their investment" (Cities Alliance, 2014). Property rights also protect slum dwellers from extortion and exploitation (Cities Alliance, 2014).…… [Read More]

References

Cities Alliance. (2014). About Slum Upgrading. Retrieved from  http://www.citiesalliance.org/About-slum-upgrading#Why_do_slums_develop 

Moser, C.O. & Dani, A.A. (Eds.). (2008). Assets. Livelihoods and Social Policy. Washington, DC: World Bank Publications.

1. Housing finance and financial inclusion

2. Housing microfinance the state of the practice
View Full Essay

Rapid Growth of the Global

Words: 1457 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65023170

The term "hockey stick" was given to this controversy by Jerry Mahlman, a climatologist who described a patter that is relatively flat to 1900 (the shaft) and then a sharp increase after 1900 that corresponds to the blade (see above) (Climate Legacy, 2004). This graph has been the key piece of evidence in views supported by the United Nations and IPCC regarding greenhouse gas emissions and environmental change.

Arguments against using the Hockey Stick as the only answer to climate claim that it is taken out of context when it comes to global climatic time. In addition, graphing the last 150 years causes, what some scientists say, is noisy data in which relatively minor changes appear to be over exaggerated because of the template of the graph. This, called small-amplitude variations, may be true from an empirical sense, but have little meaning statistically when dealing with macro-science like climate (Von…… [Read More]

REFERENCES & WORKS CONSULTED

Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. (2007). IPCC. Cited in:

 http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/syr/en/spms2.html 

Climate Legacy of 'Hockey Stick..' (2004). BBC News. Cited in:

 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/3569604.stm
View Full Essay

World Bank Also Sometimes Known

Words: 2431 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6017945

One way to reform the Bank would be to make it more accountable to an outside body of independent examiners, so that information it generates is not so self-serving and internally generated. In addition, since there have been so many charges of corruption and mismanagement, it is clear divisions such as the "anti-corruption" division are not working, and these areas need to undergo major reform. Perhaps a total reorganization of the Bank is in order, with a goal of replacing long-term Bank staff with new members, and undergoing serious organizational training and goals. If the Bank cannot remain corruption free, how can they possibly expect member nations and projects to maintain anti-corruption in their own areas? The Bank needs to take a hard look at itself and its goals, assess where it is meeting them, and where it is not, and make those changes, accordingly. They have enacted at least…… [Read More]

References

Defending the World Bank. (2006, June 20). The Washington Times, p. A18.

Editors. (2008.) About us. Retrieved 6 June 2008 from the World Bank Web site: http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTABOUTUS/0,pagePK:50004410~piPK:36602~theSitePK:29708,00.html.

Editors. (2008). Accountability at the World Bank. Retrieved 6 June 2008 from the BICUSA Web site: http://www.bicusa.org/en/Issue.25.aspx.

Editors. (2007). World Bank: Resigned Wolfowitz cites accomplishments. Retrieved 6 June 2008 from the Global Security Web site:  http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/news/2007/05/mil-070519-rferl01.htm .
View Full Essay

Representations of Women the Concept of Slavery

Words: 2615 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23288156

Representations of omen

The concept of slavery in America has engendered a great deal of scholarship. During the four decades following reconstruction, despite the hopes of the liberals in the North, the position of the Negro in America declined. After President Lincoln's assassination and the resulting malaise and economic awakening of war costs, much of the political and social control in the South was returned to the white supremacists. Blacks were left at the mercy of ex-slaveholders and former Confederates, as the United States government adopted a laissez-faire policy regarding the "Negro problem" in the South. The era of Jim Crow brought to the American Negro disfranchisement, social, educational and occupational discrimination, mass mob violence, murder, and lynching. Under a sort of peonage, black people were deprived of their civil and human rights and reduced to a status of quasi-slavery or "second-class" citizenship (Foner). Strict legal segregation of public facilities…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Douglass, F. The Anti-Slavery Movement. Rochester, NH: Lee, Man and Company, 1855. Print.

Douglass, F. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. Boston, MA:

Harvard University Press, 2005. Print.

Elliott, M. Color Blind Justice. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. Print.
View Full Essay

Women's History

Words: 2097 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82218295

Women's History

The passing of time does not necessarily denote progress: women made little noticeable social and economic advancement and almost no political or legal advancements between the European settlements of Jamestown in 1607 until the end of the Reconstruction era in 1877. In fact, most Native American women lost a considerable degree of power and status due to the imposition of European social values on their traditional cultures. African women, brought to the New World against their will and in bondage, likewise did not enjoy the fruits of social progress. White women of European descent, however, did make some progress over the course of more than two centuries of early American history. Divorce laws became more favorable toward women, who over the course of these few centuries were increasingly able to extricate themselves from violent, abusive, or unsatisfying unions. However, divorce laws were one of the only legal progress…… [Read More]

 

 

Mijn hond mijn redding | Leave it to Piyoko Episode 6 English Dubbed | Wakaokami wa Shougakusei! English Subbed