Feminism 19th and Early 20th Century America
Writing and women's roles were unavoidably mixed in the late 1800s and early 1900s. It was a time in which many women protested their restrictions through novels, poetry, pamphlets, and speeches. By analyzing those creations, readings can begin to understand the lives of those forward-looking women. In their own time, people dismissed them as inconsequential complainers. Minority authors, like blacks and lesbians were even more ignored. However, by learning about their work, we can learn about the daily life of the social classes to which they belonged.
Many people feel that our socioeconomic status limits our understanding of others (McClish and Bacon). Because our understanding is limited by our own viewpoint from our socioeconomic status, patriarchal societies tend to limit self-expression to that which is compatible with the patriarchy. As a result, it's important to remember to ask questions based one's own experience,…… [Read More]
Timeline Gendered Movements
Over the centuries, the women's rights movement has been continually evolving based upon the examples set by others. This has enabled them to make significant changes in the way they are treated and viewed within everyday society. To fully understand these transformations requires examining different events and their influence on future generations. This will be accomplished by looking at: four major events and how they are related to one another. Together, these elements will illustrate the influence of different organizations and the changes that occurred.
There are number of events which had a major impact on the women's rights movement. The most notable include:
1869 to 1890 the establishment of the National Woman Suffrage Association: In 1869 Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Stanton formed the National Women's Suffrage Association. Their goal was to achieve voting rights through a constitutional amendment. They merged with the American Women Suffrage…… [Read More]
Expressionism: This movement was launched in the early 20th century and it used exaggeration, alteration and "primitivism" (www.ibiblio.org). Expressionism alludes to art works that "emphasize the extreme expressive properties of pictorial form," according to the Guggenheim Museum. Expressionism departed from the "appearance of reality" and promoted idealistic values that oppose the "constricting forces and repressive materialism of bourgeois society" (Guggenheim). The example used is "Paris Society" by Max Beckmann: given that this painting was finished on the eve of the Third Reich, all the people appear foreboding and depressed (perhaps for good reason); it's a black-tie party but people are exaggeratedly solemn. This could be a response to materialism as party-goers are supposed to be gay and enthusiastic.
Symbolism: This movement actually began as a literary concept, but came to be a part of the style of younger painters as well, who, like the writers, rejected "…the conventions of Naturalism"…… [Read More]
Federal Hall National Memorial
The New York City Hall was located at the 26 Wall Street prior to the construction of the classic column building by Town & Davis. The City Hall was later on known as the Federal Hall. The Bill of Rights was written by the First Congress of America in this building and the first presidential oath was taken by George Washington in here. Although it was in 1812 that the Federal Hall was demolished however, the stone slab that Washington stood upon is still kept safe in the present building's rotunda. The statue of Washington stands outside. Presently, the 26 Wall Street is maintained as the Federal Hall Museum and Memorial by the United States Department of the Interior and the National Park Service as a symbol of honour to the very first President that America had as well as the start of United States of…… [Read More]
19th century, the federalist/anti-federalist schism dominated political discourse in the United States. The so-called "first party system" became less relevant as increasing numbers of citizens became politically active, leading to a greater plurality of voices and opinions. Even then, political parties had not yet become fully formed. Most elections had candidates running independently. However, the anti-federalists had become the Democratic-Republicans and they emerged as a dominant presence in the controversial 1824 presidential election. When he was defeated in that election by John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson and his supporters started the Democratic Party as an opposition group. In response, John Quincy Adams and his Secretary of State Henry Clay rebranded the Democratic-Republican Party the National Republicans.
Jackson's Democratic party grew in popularity during his presidency. An opposition party, the Whig party, emerged in response in the 1830s. For the next several decades, the Democrats and the Whigs were the primary…… [Read More]
In the same way that traditional techniques of criminal identification have enabled law enforcement authorities to establish national fingerprint information databases for the purposes of connecting evidence to possible previous offenders, DNA-based forensic evidence has allowed the creation of similar databases greatly expanding the types of forensic evidence used to increase the security of sensitive facilities and restricted areas.
When combined with the ever-increasing power of modern computer technology to cross reference and match different types of physical evidence, law enforcement authorities have already developed the ability to establish terrorist watch lists incorporating forensic evidence of previous acts of terrorism with uniquely identifying features of perpetrators still at large. The continued evolution of such marriages between criminal forensics and identification techniques will greatly enhance homeland security, both at checkpoints and in terms of tracking the possible whereabouts and activities of persons of interest in connection with possible terrorism.…… [Read More]
Exoticism in Nineteenth and Early-Twentieth Century Opera
The objective of this study is to answer as to what is meant by exoticism in nineteenth and early-twentieth century opera and as to what the appeal of exoticism to European librettists and composers. This work will take two operas as case studies and explore both the ways in which the librettists handle their subject matter and the ways in which the composers attempted to represent exoticism in musical terms. For the purpose of this study, the opera Salome by Richard Strauss and Aida by Giuseppe Verdi are chosen. This study will first examine Salome followed by an examination of Salome.
Salome the Opera
It has been said that Salome is the "most important event in German opera since the work of Richard Wagner." (Manitoba Opera 2011-2012) In fact, according to critics 'its concentrated power, eerie and sinister harmonies, and extraordinarily exotic orchestration…… [Read More]
The exoticism and escapism of Romantic Art is manifest by the focus in the features of Napoleon on the bright or the wider scenes of the battlefield. However, it is the works of Francisco Goya that perhaps most perfectly epitomizes the intense individualism and emotion of Romantic art. Even the titles of Goya's works like "Yo lo Vi (This I saw)" and "Para Eso Yo Nacido (for this I was born) places the artist's individual consciousness squarely in the center of the meaning of the painting. There is no attempt at objectivity, and no apology for the subjective nature of the representation.
The Third of May" although a political work, is not of a noble or significant figure, or a beautiful human body like "Marat." Most of the painting has a hazy quality, as if seen through the night, except for the illumination of the victims. It shows the ugliness…… [Read More]
Enactment of Amendment XIX and its contribution to the achievement of equal female rights
The enactment of the 19th amendment empowered women on many fronts. They were allowed to vote and consequently seized the opportunity to influence political decisions. The enactment saw the legalization of contraception and even abortion. There was economic empowerment too in the process. The more common availability of reproductive services and education doors increasingly opening up, more women enrolled in education institutions sought higher education. These developments also ushered in an era in which women began to occupy sensitive professional positions in the society. The amendment aimed at giving hope to all women. African-American women sought to link suffrage to race and gender across the country; so as to make sure that the benefits were not just paper-based policies, but practical processes for actual empowerment. Indeed, the African-American women believed that taking part in…… [Read More]
There is a clear sense that men and male children in particular were considered precious, and in many ways comparatively much more precious than women and girl children but this is in part because of women as the position of wife was subservient to the position of mother in law. The assurance that one day the wife would hold the household power of the mother in-law was only offered by a male child as female children when married left home for good and served their marriage family in direct orders of their new mother in-law. This is true of most classes but again was stricter in terms of the upper-class. (Mann 61) in other words if a female child is born she is expected in her lifetime to only contribute to her birth family for her childhood, and adolescence after this time the industry of her labour would…… [Read More]
Evolution of France
It was on March 31, 1889, when France ushered in the Eiffel Tower. The aim for the Eiffel Tower and what ir represented was a prelude to the Universal Exposition and as a tribute marking the century since the French Revolution. It was only about a year later when, Clement Ader, increased a couple of feet on the Eiffel Tower from the groundwork based on a device that was called an avion (or more simply an airplane). It was the 19th of July back in the year 1900, when Paris initiated the function of the very first metro line and ended up thus hosting the Second Olympics for the contemporary age. This was the period of Belle Epoque when the overall structure and economy of France was doing really well for itself internationally and internally. In that exact same year, the Lumiere siblings had actually been the…… [Read More]
Nana openly sleeps with several paying lovers, and most of the men have mistresses on the side. Sex is openly discussed in the novel, even though it is alluded to in many sections. Men have affairs, and so do women, they just do not talk about them as much. It is interesting that Zola also shows how simple society really was, and how lacking they were in anything concrete or important. After lunch, the women at Nana's play cards, and Nana is "bored" by everything. This is a society without intellectual stimulation or pursuit, and so, it is no wonder she is bored. She has no reason to use her mind, and so, she has developed no intellect or passion about anything. She is bored, and this society is boring.
Beauty and ugliness are skewed in Zola's view, as well. Body and dress were of supreme importance, even more important…… [Read More]
It would seem that the artists and the press of the era both recognized a hot commodity when they saw one, and in this pre-Internet/Cable/Hustler era, beautiful women portrayed in a lascivious fashion would naturally appeal to the prurient interests of the men of the day who might well have been personally fed up with the Victorian morals that controlled and dominated their lives otherwise. In this regard, Pyne (2006) reports that, "When scandalized critics attacked Rodin's nudes, Camera Work defended the drawings by a strategy of veiling the body with the soul, praising them as 'the perception of the mystery of surfaces.... The adventure of the mind in matter... The divinizing of the sensual and the materializing of the sensuous.' Stieglitz thus used a Whistlerian gloss of shadows and music to mystify the eroticism of Rodin's 'pagan' figures" (44).
The portrayal of women was even regarded as a…… [Read More]
The industrialist 19th-century Europeans frequently put this to the difference between private and state-sponsored religion. In 1837, an Austrian visitor to the United States observed:
In America, every clergyman may be said to do business on his own account, and under his own firm. He alone is responsible for any deficiency in the discharge of his office, as he is alone entitled to all the credit due to his exertions. He always acts as principal, and is therefore more anxious, and will make greater efforts to obtain popularity, than one who serves for wages (Powell 1967).
This should be no surprise to those who have seen populations stick to their religions despite sanctions from the state, such as in Poland. At the time of the fall of the Berlin Wall, Polish participation in Catholic ceremonies was quite high; after independence and the establishment of an official relationship with the state,…… [Read More]
The Puritans and early 19th century Americans also tended towards a pessimistic view of the world: the physical body and the physical universe were perceived as being inherently evil in conjunction with the concept of original sin. Death was therefore viewed as liberating. Because of westward expansion, 19th Century Americans cultivated more utopian visions and were generally more hopeful about the future of the United States. Furthermore, the Puritans lived outside the confines of the nation-state so their attitudes toward human life and politics differed from that of 19th century Americans.
Ethics in Puritan New England and in early 19th century America were rooted in Christian beliefs. The Puritans laid the foundations for a normative ethics that closely followed the Biblical commandments. 19th century Americans would conveniently override Biblical ethos when it came to the treatment of slaves and Native Americans and therefore both Puritans and early 19th century Americans…… [Read More]
Political Party Machines and Immigration in 19th Century America
After a bitterly contested Revolution ended in the liberation of England's former colonies, the fledgling American nation embarked on the precarious path towards a style of democratic governance that had never been enacted on so large a scale. While the latter part of the 18th century was defined by political idealism, as exemplified by contributions made by our nation's Founding Fathers, the 19th century soon gave rise to an insidious process of power consolidation and voter exploitation. The egalitarian political parties envisioned during the heady days of American Independence devolved into institutional party machines, typified by widespread corruption, fraudulent activities, autocratic rule, and a blatant disregard for the foundational importance of democracy. The most effective political party machines during the 19th century were ran ruthlessly by so-called "bosses," or political titans who maintained control over their jurisdiction through a combination of…… [Read More]
What was life like in the 19th century for the working class?
The conditions of towns were often very dreadful in the early 19th century. However, there came an improvement. The gaslight saw its first London light in 1807 at Pall Mall. Coming to the 1820s, many towns started introducing gas lighting in streetlights. In the early 19th century, most of the towns were untidy and dirty, overcrowded, and unsanitary. Men started forming groups that they referred to as pavement commissioners or improvement commissioners in the 19th century. They had the power and mandate to light, clean, and even pave the streets. During the same time, England had made divisions, which they named parishes. The power that the commissioners had could only be applied in some areas. In the parishes nearby, houses were built as the towns grew. It was very unfortunate that the commissioners had no…… [Read More]
This was Shelley's observation and the reality she experienced during her time.
Dickens and Bronte, meanwhile, experienced reality through social change, in the same way that Shelley had observed the changing times of 19th century society. However, while Shelley contemplated about the dominance of science over nature in "Frankenstein," both Dickens and Bronte reflected the breaking down of class divisions happening in the society, illustrated through the novels "Great Expectations" and "Wuthering Heights," respectively.
Dickens depicted the dissolution of class divisions through the characters of Pip and Estella, individuals who represented the underprivileged and the elite classes, respectively. In the novel, readers witnessed how Pip's ascent to a higher social class became possible through a secret benefactor, while Estella's higher stature eventually led to her poverty when Miss Havisham died. The once poor Pip eventually attained a better life, while Estella, once rich, became imprisoned in an abusive relationship with…… [Read More]
This picture displays the many steps involved in a man's drinking and his addiction to alcohol. It begins with a friendly drink but ends up with alcohol destroying the family. The image of a woman and her child leaving a ruined home reinforced the idea that alcohol destroyed homes. Women were particularly interested in the Temperance Movement because they felt that the destruction of their families was being caused by their husband's alcoholism. If women could remove alcohol from society, they felt that their husbands would become decent and hard-working members of society.
Women played an important role in the Abolitionist Movement and this picture, taken from the weekly Abolitionist newspaper The Liberator, is an attempt to draw sympathy from women for the fate of women slaves. It depicts a woman slave on her knees, chained, but pleading, almost as if she is praying for release…… [Read More]
Slavery in the Caribbean: Effects on Culture, Race and Labour
Origins of slavery
The Caribbean slavery began in the 16th and 17th century during the emergence of piracy. The basis for the modern Caribbean dates back to the slave trade and slavery. During the 16th century, outsiders settled in the Caribbean. This was a period characterised the European powers struggling for trade supremacy and the utilization of newly found resources. During the end of this century, sugar export emerged as a highly profitable trade as the cultivation of sugar developed into the main industry. The earnings from this trade were essential as they assisted in funding the Britain's and other European country's industrial revolution. Growing and producing sugar was not an easy task (Dowling, 2005).
This is since the plantations were large and needed to use the combination of agriculture and the sugar cane's mechanised processing. This meant that the…… [Read More]
net to acquire background information on the infamous Astor Place Riots in the early 19th Century. B. Do the same with Harriet Beecher Stowe and Uncle Tom's Cabin. C. Read the play, Uncle Tom's Cabin. The Astor Place Riots: What happened? (Approximately one page) In what respects was the Astor Place Riots a continuation of the themes found in the play, The Contrast? (Approximately one page) Uncle Tom's Cabin: Discuss two themes in the play. Also, do you find the play still relevant? Did it move you? (Approximately two pages)
The Astor Place riots: What happened?
The Astor Place riots were a result of the professional rivalry between two great tragedians, that of the American actor Edwin Forrest vs. The Englishman William Charles Macready. The two actors had offered the theater-going public of New York their contrasting interpretations of Hamlet, and when both actors were scheduled to play Macbeth on…… [Read More]
They would actually recompose it during rehearsals and change it wherever they thought was necessary, in order to improve the performance. This is perhaps the reason that early music is often referred to as being 'performer oriented'.
Early music also had an abundance of musical instruments of every conceivable category and type, and some of the more common ones were the stringed instruments which could be plucked, bowed or strummed, and the wind instruments, which could be played by blowing one's breath into a hole, while the fingers would play the melody. The viola da gamba, an early precursor of the violoncello, was one of the easier to play stringed instruments of the early times, which retained its popularity even during the nineteenth century. It is in fact across between a violin and a guitar; while it is fretted like the guitar, it is bowed like the violin. A typical…… [Read More]
Northern and Southern Colonies before the Civil War
In the middle of the 19th century, the industrial revolution that was growing depicted the presence of the two countries all of the most progressive independent states. The symbolic status in England laid the foundation of working class exploitation, urbanization and industrialization and the other one based on village, farmhouse, agriculture, and trustworthy relations between tenants and squires in 1845. Regarding the census of the 1850, the population of the United States was about twenty-three million; this was a rise from thirteen million in the year 1830. As of 1850, the North saw increased populations of immigrants incoming. The census that was carried out in 1860 showed the population of the United States to be about thirty-one million. This represented a thirty-nine percent increase in a span of ten years where the South only had eighth million whites compared to twenty million…… [Read More]
Space, Confinement, & Women in "The Yellow Wallpaper"
I sometimes fancy that in my condition if I had less opposition and more society and stimulus -- but John says the very worst thing I can do is to think about my condition, and I confess it always makes me feel bad. So I will let it alone and talk about the house.
~The protagonist in "The Yellow Wallpaper"
Charlotte Perkins Gilman wrote "The Yellow Wallpaper" in 1899. In the western world, this time was a period of significant change in many areas of society. It was the turn of the 20th century, one of the most historic centuries in modern history. It was the eve of the industrial revolution, an event with consequences that would cascade for decades into the future. In countries such as the United States, this was also a moment in history when women began…… [Read More]
Mary Shelley & Emily Dickinson
Women's Roles Then and Now: A Dialogue between Mary Shelley and Emily Dickinson
Mary and Emily are having an afternoon tea at Emily's Homestead garden. In the midst of enjoying the different flowering plants that Emily had planted in the garden, the women talked about and compared their lives way back in 19th century Western society and in the present time.
MARY: I know I should not be surprised anymore, but news of another reprint and publication of my novel, Frankenstein, still amazes me. Imagine the literary and commercial success of the novel! And both critics and literary scholars hail me as one of the pillars of modernist thought in 19th century English literature. To think that during my time, they even doubted that someone like me, a woman, would be able to write a novel as groundbreaking, thought-provoking, and, as they say -- "modern"!…… [Read More]
The Dutch and the French followed their example. In England, tea was introduced during Cromwell's rule.
The evolution of tea in the European market followed several periods. In the beginning, the price of tea reached quite high levels. Therefore, the product was only available to the rich, usually represented by royalties and nobles. From this point-of-view, tea's evolution on the European market is similar to that on the Chinese market. This is because tea started to be purchased by the masses when its price lowered and became more available.
The increased demand for this product on the English market determined traders to intensify their efforts in order to import larger amounts of tea from China. This is where the clippers interfered. Clippers were rapid ships that were designed in order to serve traders in their expeditions. The most circulated trade routes used for importing trade and spices from Asia were…… [Read More]
They protested workplace hazards and the treatment of workers like disposable commodities when laborers became injured, sick, or old. The Knights of Labor and the American Federation of Labor were two of the earliest labor organizations. However, legislation and government actions suppressing the strikers and a failure by the legislature or the legal system to acknowledge the suffering of laborers lead to violent confrontations between workers, managers, and the law. These workers felt as though the benefits of capitalist consumer society were being gained through their blood, sweat, tears, and lives, and they had no voice other than violence.
The railroad strikes of 1877, the Haymarket riot, and the Homestead and Pullman strikes all resulted in bloodshed on both sides. The emerging middle-class grew hostile to labor and began to associate it with violence. Class divisions intensified in American society. Ideologies such as Social Darwinism or that 'survival of the…… [Read More]
Many people today see Brazil's diverse racial and cultural foreground as one of the nation's strengths. Throughout its development as a nation, the intermixing of several different cultures has given this country it own unique blend. Race and the mixing of race has played a key role in this development. The widely held belief that Brazil was less able to develop due to its mixed races spurred many discussions and debate. The purpose of this essay is to explore the cultural roots of Brazil by examining the streams of intermingling culture and their sometimes violent clashes of customs and laws.
The quick and swift rise of Brazilian national identity followed a familiar form common to many other developmental histories of European colonial territories. During Brazil's colonial period (1500 -- 1822), individuals born in Brazil were subject to rules and taxes that were enforced and created in the homeland of…… [Read More]
The country of Poland has been one with a history of complex politics and a difficult time retaining independence from foreign invaders. During the 19th century, Poland was controlled by a series of other nations, earning this era of Polish history the moniker of "The Age of Partitions." While the rest of the continent was expanding economically through the industrial revolution and from literature and scientific exploration during the Scientific Revolution, Poland was a perpetual battleground, constantly in flux between authoritarian governments and an attempt to regain autonomy. In a short 100 years, Poland had been occupied by the Russia, Prussia, and Austrian governments. Despite all this political upheaval and a constant fluctuation of power, the Polish people were able to keep a unified national identity.
Fighting against three very strong nations was an impossible task for the Polish nationals. However, that did not stop the people from…… [Read More]
Story of an Hour
Mrs. Mallard Obituary: The Story of an Hour" by Kate Chopin
This essay underscores the discriminative attitude towards women in the 19th century. The essay predominately assesses gender representation in Kate Chopin Story Of an Hour, and the tale is paired to Schumaker, Conrad. "Too Terribly Good to Be Printed": Charlotte Gilman's "The Yellow Wallpaper" also written in the nineteen century and depicts the roles of women in a conservative society dominated by men. I choose to use Kate Chopin story to write the obituary because the story is set in 19th century in a society that does not recognize women. The death of Louise Mallard forms the basis of this essay given her intriguing attitude towards the society, and the cause of her death. The fact that Mrs. Mallard somehow rejoiced in her husband's death because of the her desire to liberate herself…… [Read More]
Susan Anthony is a key figure in women's rights movement of this time. She called for increased women's admission in the teaching profession. She also campaigned for equal pay for male and female slaves as well as better protection for female laborers trough trade unions that she became a part of (Susan B. Anthony House, n.d.).
These radical changes in the sphere of womanhood are reflected in the artistic accomplishments of women. Fredrika Bremer, for example, a Swedish Finland native who traveled to the United States to learn about culture and women's position, wrote a lot about slavery. Hertha, one of Bremer's key works, is a novel depicting the story of a woman who went beyond traditional female role expectations. This is believed to have influenced the parliament in legal reforms concerning women's rights (Lewis, 2009).
Women's fight for equal rights which defined the 19th century did not escape the…… [Read More]
Internet is arguably the greatest revolution in Human History. In considerably less than a century, information-gathering and communication have skyrocketed with no apparent end in sight. Google and Wikipedia are merely two examples of Internet developments that were probably unimaginable even 20 years ago but are widely-used realities today.
Searching for information on Google IS and IS NOT like trying to find a needle in a haystack. Was the library of the 19th century more efficient? Explain.
The answer to this question depends on several factors. At first blush, searching for information on Google is certainly like "trying to find a needle in a haystack" because "Some people have suggested that there are 155 million Web sites, 1 trillion Web pages, and 5 million terabytes of data out there" (Anonymous, Introduction to Computer Literacy | Chapter 6 | The search is on, 2012, p. 8). Since Google allows a person…… [Read More]
Men were afraid to give equal rights to women because it would destabilize the status quo of the society, wherein men are considered the "head of the house," and women, subservient and dependent on the head of the house and consequently, considered as the "heart of the house" who keeps the family together while the men goes out to earn a living. Women's rights sought to destabilize the status quo, which puts women in charge of a family's domestic affairs and inside the house, while men are taught to think of more significant things outside of the home and deal with non-domestic affairs. Thus, women's rights and their claim to right to suffrage threatened the moral and social fabric of American society during this time.
3. During the time that the women's rights movement were making significant progress with their advocacy, Fuller is one with other women activists in promoting…… [Read More]
Mass politics in Europe at the end of the 19th Century had turned away from the liberalism of the intellectual and capitalist elites in the direction of populist movements that described themselves as socialist, social democratic or nationalist. Frequently they rejected liberal rationalism and science as well in favor of emotion, mystical symbols, charismatic leaders and demagogues. Among these were the Christian Social Party of Karl Lueger in Austria, which Adolf Hitler admired as a young man and later imitated, and the Action Francaise in France, led by Charles Maurras, Maurice Barras and Eduard Drumont. This early fascist movement thrived in after a Jewish officer in the French Army, Alfred Dreyfus, was falsely convicted of espionage and sentenced to prison on Devil's Island. For Emile Zola and the French Left, overturning this unjust conviction was the most important cause of the era, but for the nationalist and anti-Semitic Right it…… [Read More]
Bartleby and Akaky: A Struggle against Social Tide
Herman Melville's Bartleby, the Scrivener: A Story of Wall-street is a story reminiscent of the emergence of nineteenth century white-collar working class in most cities in the United States and specifically New York. Melville paints a picture of "Bartleby" a tragi-comic fable about a passive man, invisible to the society and who responds to his condition in the most unusual way leading to his death. It is important to note that this story was written at the height of labor activism when the Wall Street was the center of Political debates on workers' rights amid growing labor movements. Similarly, Nikolai Gogol's The Overcoat is reminiscent of nineteenth-century Russia characterized by challenges of transition from feudal society to a modern society with the advent of industrialization. The author paints a picture of an individual engulfed by the absurdities of life as a result…… [Read More]
Spain and the Christianization of America
The term "Hispanic" was recently adopted by the U.S. government as a way to describe people of Spanish-speaking descent in general and people from Latin America in particular, but it is ironic that such a term is needed at all given the historic precedence of the Spanish language in America. Indeed, since Spanish was spoken first and was widespread, it would seem more appropriate for English-speakers today to be referred to in such a fashion to distinguish them as relative newcomers to North and Latin America. Moreover, Hispanics are not necessarily religiously homogeneous but rather subscribe to a wide range of faiths. In this regard, Gonzalez and Cardoza-Orlandi emphasize that, "Today, in any major city in the United States one can find a variety of religious practices and traditions among the Hispanics" (p. 96). In fact, Catholic sovereigns, or Bembe, were Cuban, African and…… [Read More]
Technological Fix and Anatomical Body
19th and 20th Century Surgical Fixes
During the 1800s, surgery had become a common medical procedure due to the discovery of anesthesia which was used in reducing pain during surgery.[footnoteRef:1] In addition, technological fixes were in place for correcting medical conditions such as the removal of tumors. During this period, medical practitioners were able to describe the locations of structures in relation to other structures in the body which ensured they knew the organ's positions and could conduct surgery of various body parts easily. [1: Porter, R. (1999). The Greatest Benefit to Mankind: A Medical History of Humanity from Antiquity to the Present. Fontana Press.]
Following the in-depth understanding of human anatomy and use of antiseptics as well as anesthesia, towards the end of the 19th century, surgeons started performing new types of surgery including dissection of the abdomen, brain, and spinal cord.[footnoteRef:2] In line…… [Read More]
gangs of New York film
Gangs of New York" is a chronological film directed by Martin Scorsese. It is film that blend well with the novel "The Gangs of New York," written by Herbert Asbury (Asbury). The film narrates using commended historical precision, the Five Points district of New York City during the mid-19th century (Gilfoyle 620). This film includes, among other issues, a precise depiction of the grueling socio-political environment of the Five Points; at the same time accentuating on the extensive injustices and harassment caused by this society.
Gangs of New York - Executive summary
The film Gangs of New York has a high level of racism, war, and political corruption. The production of this film occurs between 1846 and 1862. The story narrates about the issues surrounding the Irish immigrants and the Americans citizens who take the name of the Native Americans. Amsterdam Vallon comes back to…… [Read More]
Nursing & Women's Roles Pre-and-Post Civil War
The student focusing on 19th century history in the United States in most cases studies the Civil War and the causes that led to the war. But there are a number of very important aspects to 19th century American history that relate to women's roles, including nursing and volunteering to help the war wounded and others in need of care. This paper delves into the role nurses played in the Civil War (both Caucasian and Black nurses), the way in which the Civil War changed the woman's work roles, the role women (both Black and Caucasian) played before, during, and after the war, and the terrible injustices thrust on women of color in a number of instances throughout the 19th century.
The Woman's role in America prior to the Civil War
"A woman's work is never done," is an old maxim but it…… [Read More]
In conclusion, these works all illustrate the changing role of women in 19th century society. At the beginning of the century, women's work was inside the home and raising a family. By the end of the century, Victorian women were attempting to add meaning and fulfillment to their lives. Women in this country were attempting to gain the right to vote, they were forming women's groups and societies, and women like Gilman, Chopin, Wollstonecraft Shelley, and others, were attempting to create their own writing careers, allowing them to be at least partially autonomous and independent. They write of women's struggles for equality and understanding with great knowledge, skill, and perception. They also write of the realities of being a woman in the 19th century. For the most part, women's lives were unfulfilled and controlled by the men around them.
Chopin, Kate. The Awakening, and Other Stories. Ed. Knights, Pamela.…… [Read More]
(Robinson, 2002, p. 180) According to Robinson (2002) the shutter speed used can have a "dramatic effect" on the photograph.
Summary and Conclusion
Many technological advances took place in the 19th and 20th century and included in these changes were developments in camera and film that enabled the field of photography to expand greatly. Photographs began to be used in new ways and particularly in documenting not only events but lives and this included those in the public eye and the lives of individuals throughout society.
The adjustment of the shutter speed enabled photographers to make the dull dramatic and enabled those who would influence politics and society through a creative tool to do precisely that. The increase of shutter speeds further allowed the photographer to have more control over their work and specifically, the increase in shutter speeds allowed the photographers to produce clear and sharp images as compared…… [Read More]
status of women in the pre and post revolutionary days. The paper also touches upon the current status of women to show how the changes that took place in the 19th century finally affected the life of American women in the 20th century.
THE STATUS OF WOMEN IN AMERICA IN THE 17TH AND 19TH CENTURIES
Women in the United States have worked hard to achieve some sort of equality to their male counterparts in every field of activity. Social economic and political conditions have undergone a massive change since the country attained freedom in 1776. Women were a significantly oppressed section of the society in the 17th and 18th centuries, there were no voting rights for them and they were kept out of armed forces and other businesses. This resulted in lack of economic resources for women, which further lowered their position in the country, as they had to depend…… [Read More]
TRIFLES by Susan Glaspell
In "Trifles" by Susan Glaspell, the characteristics of the women and the attitudes to their men and their own roles in life are gradually illuminated. The intensity of the situation, in effect two women judging the life of the third, absent party, provides a context in which Mrs. Hale and Mrs. Peter grow significantly, in character, strength and importance.
The principle characters in the play are effectively the three women, Mrs. Hale, Mrs. Peters and Minnie Foster-Wright. This is contrary to the opening lines, during which the bulk of the dialogue and the perspective on events is from the men. It not until the men retire upstairs to seek clues, and the two sexes are physically separated, that the women are revealed to be the focus of the play. Mrs. Hale and Mrs. Peters are then shown in their more natural context: without the presence of…… [Read More]
Bad Experience With a Priest:
comparison of the Catholicism aspects in Scott's Ivanhoe and Twain's a Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court
In reading Mark Twain's A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court, one cannot deny that the blame for the collapse of Hank's new civilization falls on the Church. Throughout the novel, Twain paints a negative image of the Church and its priests. This negative image can also be found in Sir Walter Scott's Ivanhoe. Scott gives us characters such as the confused Templar and the misaligned Prior. Both writers have poor views of religion and this is evident in their unflattering portraits of the corrupt medieval church.
Scott's portrait of the Prior is not a very pleasant one. Nothing about him seems to be spiritual. When we first meet him, his costume is basically appropriate for a priest, but it is said to be "composed of materials much…… [Read More]
This meant that men held positions of power and authority in all the public spheres including economics/business, politics/the law, and the bearing of arms. Men also possessed social status that women did not have, enabling the perpetuation of a patriarchal society.
By applying Freudian psychoanalysis and feminist theory, I will analyze the personality of the independent, strong, risk taker, and smart Alexandra Bergson in Willa Cather's O Pioneer! As Smith points out in Freud's Philosophy of the Unconscious, the psychoanalytic model lends insight into the underlying psychic forces promoting personal and collective change. With regards to a singular female like Alexandra Bergson, psychoanalysis takes into account the protagonist's family background, tracing her ego development across the course of her lifetime starting with childhood. The significance of my research is that it studies the possibility of female's success in life under certain circumstances and refutes the outmoded opinion that suggests the…… [Read More]
Islamic Women -- Ottoman Empire
Islamic women who lived in the Ottoman Empire in the 18th and 19th centuries are the focus of this inquiry. What was their social life like in terms fun, vice, pleasure, and other activities that involved sensuality or illegal interactions? What do various authors report regarding the activities women engaged in during this era the Ottoman Empire? This paper reviews and critiques the literature relating to the subject of women and their activities in this period of Islamic history.
Mary Ann Fay -- "Women and WAQF" (background)
In her essay, Mary Ann Fay discusses Mamluk politics and society in 18th century Ottoman Egypt, pointing to the fact that women of Mamluk households enjoyed "considerable economic autonomy" because they were owners and managers of property (Fay, 1997, 31). That gave them a certain degree of social power but as Fay explains, Mamluk women also derived power…… [Read More]
Gift giving creates a bond between the giver and the receiver. Mauss felt that to reject a gift, was to reject the social bond attached to it. Likewise, to fail to reciprocate is viewed as a dishonorable act in some cultures. Gift giving is a means to create social cohesion among the group.
What Distinctive contributions did Weber make to social theory?
Weber used his work to attempt to understand the differences between traditional cultures and modern western society. He disagrees with organic theories and placed more emphasis on the individual's contribution to the whole (Weber, in Anthropological Theory, 1922: 112-113). Weber contributed the idea that religion changes the motives of the individual. Therefore, religion played a constructive role in the development of society. Weber felt that individuals in traditional societies selected and followed leaders based on their personalities, or out of tradition. He felt that individuals in Western society…… [Read More]
However, our continuing humanitarian obligation to the Indians cannot allow these primitive peoples to stand in the way of national progress. They must be removed and granted only a reasonable amount of territory.
Editorial Against Indian Removal
I regret to say that our potentially great nation is being sullied by the way that it has approached the question of Indian removal from the Great Desert. Largely to escape the oppression of a Royal Crown that failed to respect the autonomous rights of individuals, the Founder of this nation sought a new form of government that respected individual rights. Now, it is the American people who have been guilty of oppression. Practically, since our first settlers explored the land of opportunity, they have wronged this continent's native peoples. In some cases, this was accomplished by trickery; in others it was by force; in still other instances, we have pledged our word…… [Read More]
Irony and Humor in French Literature
Delphine Perret's analysis of irony and humor is apparently well-founded and well-supported by famous literature. Due to obvious differences in the French and English notions of irony, Perret explored irony by returning to its roots. Starting "at square one" with definitions of "irony" from notable dictionaries, Perret then traces irony through historical eras and developments with the aid of such great thinkers as Socrates and Aristotle. Her exhaustive analysis results in clearly defined types of irony/humor, basic elements of the phenomenon and dimensions that are or should be present in that form of writing. The intelligence of Perret's examination is illustrated in two famous French plays of the 19th and 20th Century: "Ubu Roi" and "The Bald Soprano." Though written by different playwrights in different centuries, both plays fully support Perret's analysis and findings regarding irony/humor.
a. Perret's Applicable Points
Delphine Perret's "Irony"…… [Read More]
Race for Colonies in the Late 19th Century
Although European imperialism had started in the 15th century when a number of European powers such as Spain, Portugal and Great Britain began to look for new settlements around the world, another great race for colonies occurred in the late 19th century. This time around, other countries such as the United States and Japan also joined Europe in the race. Some of the major reasons for the establishment of colonies in the late 19th century and specific examples of such colonies are outlined below.
The industrial revolution in Europe and the United States had greatly increased their technological and military power by the second half of the 19th century. Japan, too, had embarked on a path of rapid modernization in the mid-nineteenth century. As a result, several countries in Europe (including England, France, Germany and Italy), the U.S. And Japan…… [Read More]
public roles of women in the 18th century vs. The 19th and 20th centuries
The implications of gender difference placed special emphasis on a woman's place and the distinction economically and socially in women's lives.
In the last few decades, the history of women has been recognized and has been defined integrated and accepted at the academic level. Accordingly, the fields of study are now identified as "gender history," feminist history and women's history. Basically, historians have accepted the fact that more than just great men were responsible for the past.
To come to terms with what led to that eventual realization let's begin by examining a time when the treatment of women was dictated by their gender. Let's consider the treatment of women during 18th century Europe. A woman's position within her family, and within society was based specifically on her special reproductive functions. This type of thinking was…… [Read More]
768). Yet the widespread slaughter of people in the name of total war was a principle varying point between Asian and Western powers during the 19th century.
Despite whatever moral and philosophical objections Clausewitz might have raised to total war, he certainly saw value in involving as much of a population as possible in its martial efforts. In this respect, he conceived of war from a decidedly nationalistic viewpoint, in which women and children may not have directly been involved in battles but were certainly useful in employing the spirit of nationalism that could motivate an entire populace to focus its efforts on successfully waging war. Tactically, however, some of Clausewitz conceptions stemmed from those of Asian antiquity, particularly from Sun Tzu's longstanding treatise the Art of War. Although this book was written well before the 19th century, it was certainly influential in its early conception of war in which…… [Read More]
This would result in a proliferation of German success and influence throughout the continent and an effective solidarity amongst German immigrants.
5) What was the "wolf by the ears" quandary that Takai suggests late century American slaveholders found themselves to be in? What were they afraid of? What solutions to the problems created by slavery were possible considering the existing conditions and mentalities in American societies at the time?
The problem of slavery had become pressing, not just insofar as it represented a serious humanitarian crisis for the U.S. But even further, as it presented the U.S. And many of its citizens a serious threat to stability. Jefferson's comments, which sound derisive enough, were actually couched in the understanding that the slave class of the United States was justifiably angry, restless and therefore, dangerous to its master. Accordingly, Takaki reports that "As it is,' Jefferson cried out, 'we have the…… [Read More]
As the wealthy people no longer had to live in the center of the city, the central business district was characterized by retail shops, office buildings and light manufacturing.
In America, the industrial revolution started just before the beginning of the 19th century. Prior to this, 6% of the United States' population lived in urban areas with close to 90% of practicing agriculture. This figure later fell to 50% in the following century meaning that every farmer could produce twice of what they required for themselves. American cities grew as a result of the enhancement in agricultural efficiency brought by the development of agricultural machinery. Agricultural machinery made manual labor of farming redundant because of large equipment which hastened agricultural productions. As a result, a very smaller proportion of the country's population could meet the entire nation's agricultural needs.
The other factor that led to the growth of American cities…… [Read More]
Kant, Hanslick and Music
Kant and Hanslick on Music and the Beauty Thereof
Several theories have been formulated regarding how art should be evaluated aesthetically and how this aesthetic evaluation can be applied to music. While some contend that aesthetics and music should be evaluated from a Marxist perspective in which socio-historic factors are taken into consideration, others contend that a work of art should be judged based upon its form or structure. In order to better understand what can and is considered beautiful, one can look to Immanuel Kant's The Critique of Judgment; likewise, Eduard Hanslick in Vom Musikalisch-Schonen: Ein Betrag Zur Revision der Asthetik der Tonkunst (On the Musically Beautiful: A Contribution Towards the Revision of the Aesthetics of Music) is able to build upon Kant's arguments regarding beauty and attempt to define what makes music aesthetically pleasing.
Music is a special kind of art because it is…… [Read More]
Captain Smith by Pocahontas
Antonio Capellano's sculpture The Preservation of Captain Smith by Pocahontas (1825) is still in the Capitol Rotunda along with other works of the same period such as William Penn's Treaty with the Indians and The Landing of the Pilgrims, although they no longer resonate with audiences in the same way as they did in the 19th Century. In the 20th and 21st Centuries, more sophisticated and educated viewers at least would realize that these are all the product of an era of Western expansion and a highly romanticized view of history that is heavily tinged with racism and white nationalism. When these sculptures were first commissioned by the U.S. government, the early republic was engaged in westward expansion that would result in the destruction, displacement or removal of most Native Americans, a process that most white Americans of the era regarded as necessary and beneficial. All…… [Read More]
They were not content to merely 'talk the talk', but were bound and determined to 'walk the walk' as well. They ended their declaration of independence by stating they would "circulate tracts, petition the State and national legislatures, and endeavor to enlist the pulpit and press on our behalf. We hope this Convention will be followed by a series of Conventions embracing every part of the country" (Sochen, 1974, p. 127).
Not surprisingly, some people took these women seriously and others did not. Men were especially prone to making snide remarks about how only barren, lonely and 'misfit' women attended this convention. They essentially implied that if these women were able to land a husband and have some kids, they would stop this 'nonsense' (Sochen, 1974). But it was not nonsense. In fact, most of it made perfect sense. And as much as anti-feminists wanted the women's movement to just…… [Read More]
Yellow Wall-Paper: A Commentary on the Social Conditions Facing Women in the 19th Century
The Yellow Wall-Paper" by Charlotte Perkins Gilman is a story that is often considered to be one of the most influential pieces of literature of the 19th century. This influence is based on its ability to communicate issues that went against the conventions of the society of the time. These issues were related to the place of women and the treatment of women, especially in regards to women suffering from depression. Via the story, Gilman offers an insight into the social conditions for women, showing how women are repressed in society, how women are treated for depression, and the consequences of this. Essentially, Gilman presented and questioned the social conditions facing women in the 19th century. A consideration of the story and its effects will allow these social conditions to be understood. This will begin with…… [Read More]
Illusion is central to both Abselon's description of the "pantomime of gentility," and Cook's description of what he calls "artful deception." As described by Abselon and Cook, what role does illusion play in Barnum's museum exhibits and in late 19th century department stores? Does illusion operate similarly or differently in these two contexts? Why is illusion so compelling to nineteenth-century, middle -class audience. For this question use the following two texts: Cook, Arts of Deception) and Abselon, When Ladies Go -- A Thieving
Both Elaine S. Abselon and James Cook focus in their respective texts upon the intersection of race, gender, and class that occurred in the twin modern temples of illusion, the department store and the circus, of the 19th century middle class. For Abelson, the popularity of the newly-created department store enabled merchants to display the supposed bounty of the middle class' new largess, combined with the illusion…… [Read More]
Through all these events, Torvald demonstrates that he does not see Nora clearly. He is blind to her strengths and exaggerates her weaknesses, and sees her only as someone to entertain and enhance his image in the eyes of others.
HOW NORA RELATES to TORVALD
While clearly Torvald sees Nora as an entertaining child who must be guided, Nora's conversations with her friend Mrs. Linde show that to some extent, Torvald is right. Mrs. Linde visits Nora while she is in some distress. Her husband has died and she desperately needs a job. As Nora talks to her, she says whatever pops into her head first without considering how it will affect Mrs. Linde. She comments that Mrs. Linde is not as attractive as she once was. Even though she knows Mrs. Linde has no income, she boasts that with Torvald's promotion they will have "pots and pots of…… [Read More]