19th Century Essays (Examples)

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Feminism 19th and Early 20th Century America

Words: 2650 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92213425

Feminism 19th and Early 20th Century America

Writing and woman suffrage were inextricably intertwined in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Suffrage gave them a voice, and they used that voice to challenge the early American patriarchal status quo. By examining those works, new light can be brought to bear on suffrage activists, who at the time were thought to be an unimportant fringe group. Through a study of their work, we can learn more about their day-to-day lives.

According to Sandra Harding in McClish and Bacon (p. 28), one's own knowledge depends on one's position in society. When one is a subordinate in the social hierarchy, one understands life differently than someone at the top of the social hierarchy. However, as the most powerful write history, it tends to be rather one-sided. Since that is the case, Harding argues that these different viewpoints are equally valid. By looking at…… [Read More]

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Nineteenth Century Prostitution Within the

Words: 2865 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94666570

These new views lead to a growing change in the status and aggressiveness of women in the nineteenth century.

Furthermore the belief that al of Victorian society was virtuous and unblemished has even come under more scrutiny. "...historians now use letters, diaries, marriage manuals, and even one survey of sexual attitudes to argue that the Victorians were in fact far less restrained.

The power of the Catholic Church meant that theological teaching was translated into dogma, and from dogma into policy and action. However, the contradictions presented by the potency of the sexual drive, the sanctity of marriage and the fear of damnation made the institution of prostitution inevitable. It became the 'lesser' or the 'necessary' evil permitted in order to safeguard more cherished institutions and to prevent men from committing graver sins. Justifications multiplied. 'If you eliminate prostitutes from society, ' declared St. Augustine, 'you disrupt everything with lust.…… [Read More]

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Artifacts From the 19th and 20th Century

Words: 1641 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 72367743

Artifacts From the 19th and 20th Century

19th Century:

Its funny how paper is never really given importance because of the fact that it is so inexpensive and everywhere, that most of us take it for granted. In this paper, we will look at the making of the paper and how it became one of the most disposable products in the world.

Till the mid-1800's paper was considered an expensive commodity and was available only in individual hand-made sheets. Paper was the size of a papermaking frame that had to be handled by one or two people.

This created two problems, one was to be able to manufacture the paper in that size and the second was to manufacture in high volumes.

Rags, grass and straw were used to manufacture high quality paper. Then came the lower quality paper called cardboards and wall coverings. During the industrial growth of the…… [Read More]

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American Imperialism in the 19th

Words: 1314 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60398294

However, there were people who were against American Imperialism. Some believed that by expanding into islands, they were opening the door to people whom they viewed as lower in race and culture. America, at the time, had many who believed that Americans were superior in race and culture. There were other issues at hand during this time -- tensions between other world powers, an volatile economy -- and some believed that by focusing on expansion, the nation was not facing the real problems that needed to be dealt with right at home.

Anti-imperialist raged about what America was doing when America should be at home tending to the needs of its citizens. There were defenders of American Imperialism who would not have it, however. They saw America as the greatest nation in the world and in order to keep that position, they needed to go out and conquer all the…… [Read More]

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Private Property and the Commons of 16th Century Spain

Words: 1974 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75365249

Private Property & the Commons of 16th Century Spain

Private Property in 16th Century Spain

Historically, 16th-century Castile was considered to be fundamentally an urban society that depended on cities and towns for the articulation of its local and centralized administration (Elliott, 1991). Privilege was considered to be a matter of a priori rights founded on traditions associated with nobility and wealth. The lower social stratum was maintained in order to provide fiscal and military support for the crown. The qualities of separateness -- both cultural and logistical -- between the urban central and diffuse local jurisdictions engendered very different perspectives regarding authority. Rather than arbitrating reasonable agreements, local authority worked to undermine what was considered to be overreaching by the crown. I contend that the autonomy of local jurisdictions worked against the crown's insistence on absolutism and a monarchy of estates that were grounded in medieval social concepts, however,…… [Read More]

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20th Century Architecture in the 20th Century

Words: 1758 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76895691

20th Century Architecture

Architecture in the 20th Century

As said by a famous spokesperson, architecture aims at eternity. Throughout history, architecture has always asked for creativity and coordination from those who possess the skills to excel in this field. Throughout the course of the nineteenth century, architecture had very little to do with industrial activities and rather was only concerned with structures and monuments which symbolised the pride of a country or state. But the dawn of the twentieth century changed it all[footnoteRef:1] (Writework 1). [1: See "What impact has technology had on architecture of the 20th century? For more information regarding the advancements of technology in the 20th century.]

The industrial revolution in many countries and the development of man's relation with the machines brought about significant changes in the field of architecture. A new ideology was adopted which revolved around mechanics and efficiency, and architecture was transformed into…… [Read More]

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In the 21st Century What Is Diplomacy

Words: 2210 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 24228521

21st Century, What is Diplomacy?

Gone are the days when the only means of resolving conflicts between countries were long blood smeared wars with no talks about finding a peaceful way out. As the world grows into a compact village where every country is dependent on the other for its sustenance, resolving conflicting interests, reconciling ructions and pursuing peaceful relations, knowing Diplomacy at its best is of sheer importance and irrevocable: something a country cannot exist without. Today, Diplomacy is being heavily banked on by every state for a peaceful way of pursuing its means without creating a pre-war condition. However, the way Diplomacy works and exists now is not the crude form it was born with.

Diplomacy dates back to being as ancient as human existence itself, ever since man came into being, his need to settle matters to his benefit became of utmost importance, and states are the…… [Read More]

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Spying in the 18th Century

Words: 1414 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3120345

It wasn't always a matter of stealing the designs or the parts for a specific technology, Harris explains: "…the arts never pass by writing from one country to another," he quotes from a French official writing in 1752. "The eye and practice alone train men in these activities" (Harris, 43).

In 18th Century Italy Pope Innocent XII had set up a hospice in Laterano for the poor, and the Pope instituted reforms that were designed to "…convince the wealthy to give up direct almsgiving and contribute only to the official collectors" (Grell, et al., 2004, p. 255). In other words, there was an attitude against panhandlers profiting from begging in the streets. Indeed, those with financial means (if they followed the rules) would not be giving directly to beggars, but instead a network would be set up so the wealthy could contribute to a "hospice" where the poor were locked…… [Read More]

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20th Century a New and Distinctive Global

Words: 2084 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69355076

20th century, a new and distinctive global system had developed out of the interaction and mutual reinforcement of technological innovations, nationalist motivations, and new imperialism. Nationalist motivations to acquire land and glory for the good of one's nation likely played an important part in driving the new imperialism that characterized the beginning of the 19th century. In turn, technology provided a means for countries like Britain and France to expand their overseas territories, and thus bring many of their nationalist dreams to fruition. Overall, the interplay between nationalist motivations, new imperialism and technological innovation was a complex and profoundly important factor in the history of the early 20th century and late 19th century.

Nationalist motivations focus on loyalty and an almost complete and blind devotion to a country. To the nationalist, a country is seen as superior to all others, and the promotion of its culture and interests above all…… [Read More]

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14th 15th and 19th Amendments of the

Words: 994 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 335108

14th, 15th, and 19th Amendments of the United States Constitution took quite a long time to be fully realized for a number of reasons. The principle one, of course, is that the U.S. was designed to operate as a patriarchal, Anglo-Saxon-based society to benefit its principle citizens, white males. A cursory review of the recent court decision in which a Hispanic white male shot and killed an unarmed African-American teenager in Florida (and was acquitted earlier this month) indicates that this perception and basic function of U.S. society has not substantially changed. The 14th, 15th, and 19th Amendments were created to extend the rights enjoyed by Anglo-Saxon males to others of historic minority groups such as African-Americans and women. As such, there was a great deal of resistance enacted upon the majority of the country that did not want to see the shift of the focus of citizenship go from…… [Read More]

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Leadership Three Theories Three Centuries

Words: 2027 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14621831

e. leadership (Pruyne, 2001, p. 6), but also that "determining how to abstract a set of leadership concepts that apply across contexts without sacrificing an understanding of how the conditions and qualities involved in leadership vary among those same contexts" remained elusive (Pruyne, 2001, p. 7). Experts provided extended series of examples, mostly from the 20th century, demonstrating how leadership characteristics change over time and vary with context. Therefore future, 21st-century leaders should learn from the confused, sometimes contradictory and still evolving historical development of the concept "leadership," in order to distill the useful concepts from mistakes and temporary analytical fads. What seems to persist from the development of leadership theory over the last three centuries, is that leaders can be made rather than born regardless of inherited socio-economic status, and that while certain traits may be more prominent or apparent in those who find themselves in positions of leadership…… [Read More]

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Gothic Literature in 18th Century England

Words: 2747 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83808044

Relationship of "The Old English Baron" and "Vathek" to 18th Century English Gothic Fiction

The rise of Gothic fiction in English literature coincided with the advent of the Romantic Era at the end of the 18th century and beginning of the 19th century. Gothic masterpieces such as Shelley's Frankenstein, Lewis's The Monk, and Stoker's Dracula would capture the imagination by fueling it with the flames of horror, suspense, other-worldliness and mystery. These elements are significant because the Age of Enlightenment had been characterized by a cold, objective, analytical focus on nature and humankind. It had been based on the concept that reason was sufficient to explain all events in the world and in fact all creation. Yet as Shakespeare's Hamlet reminded readers, "There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, / Than are dreamt of in your philosophy" (Shakespeare 1.5.167-168). Part of this interest in the Gothic was inspired…… [Read More]

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20th Century British Literature Specifically

Words: 2023 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55621010

In fact, all these novels are concerned with the psychology and attitudes of the characters, and use them to represent the fragmentation and uncertainty in society. The characters own lives are uncertain and fragmented, and this represents these themes in society at large.

Rhys also wanted to confront areas of British society that remained hidden and unacknowledged in her novel. In "Jane Eyre," the character's madness is simply alluded to, and the character does not have a voice. In "Wide Sargasso Sea," the character has a voice. Rhys writes, "But we must talk about it.... No other time, now.... You have no right to ask questions about my mother and then refuse to listen to my answer" (Rhys 129). In true 20th century honesty and openness, she wants to bring the subject out and confront it, while in England it was covered up and hidden. This shows the fragmentation in…… [Read More]

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20th Century Technological Advances Three

Words: 1437 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77746339

Television. Perhaps as no other medium in the history of humankind, television became such an integral part of the human condition during the latter part of the 20th century that no one today can likely imagine what life would truly be like without it. Television has certainly had a major impact on American society (Chalkey, 1993). Although many children and adults are spending more time on the computer than watching television in the 21st century, people could not get enough of the medium in the 20th century. Television became enormously popular and served as a unifying cultural force, a ubiquitous purveyor of goods and services, and the "boob tube" has transformed the human condition in America ever since. According to Marilou M. Johnson (2001), "Television programming has the power to inform, to guide, to persuade and to cause audience members to react with a variety of emotions. This power is…… [Read More]

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Eighteenth Century

Words: 1554 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 65360395

Eighteenth Century was a time of profound change and upheaval in the western world. Alexander Pope, Samuel Pepys, Jonathan Swift were among the most prominent of 18th century writers, and each left his mark on literature. Importantly, the 1800s were characterized by the impact of social stratification on all aspects of life, including food, fashion, society, furnishings, and even literature.

Society and Culture

In 18th century Europe, the dominant powers were Russia, Prussia, France, Austria, and Britain. As such, any discussion of the 18th century usually focuses upon life in these leading nations. At the time, America was embroiled deeply in the development of a new nation, the shaking off of the shackles of slavery, and lessening English control in the American colonies. The United States Declaration of Independence was only signed late in the eighteenth century, in 1776 (Wikipeda).

Lasting from 1701-1800, the 18th century is often synonymous with…… [Read More]

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Moll Flanders the Eighteenth Century Is Often

Words: 3113 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 47252681

Moll Flanders

The eighteenth century is often thought of a time of pure reason; after all, the eighteenth century saw the Enlightenment, a time when people believed fervently in rationality, objectivity and progress. However, Moll Flanders by Daniel Defoe also shows an era of chaos, depicted by a sort of wildness inside of people. Moll Flanders, the protagonist of Defoe's story, has been an orphan, a wife, mother, prostitute and a thief. Paula Backscheider (65) urges that Moll Flanders symbolizes the vicissitudes that were frequently experienced by many people in what was supposed to be an enlightened age. This is an obvious juxtaposition in Defoe's work. Defoe depicts a world that is not very compassionate, despite it being the Enlightenment period. Moll should have been better taken care of as an orphan, but she wasn't and this shows a complete lack of social responsibility on the government's side. There seems…… [Read More]

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20th Century Arts Artist

Words: 1015 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47390065


Five notable 20th century artists

The nature of 20th century art was profoundly challenged by the sudden ubiquity of apparently 'objective' media such as the motion picture, photography, and standardized graphic advertising. How could art be deployed effectively in the face of such representation? If art was no longer needed to physically capture the past, what was its use? The answer posed by the plastic arts was that art must look inward, and capture the soul of the artist, rather than objective reality. This new focus on the inwardness of art soon extended itself into other media, of performance as well as static at The rise of psychology in the popular imagination and consciousness provided the 'answer' of inwardness to this potent question possible. A new internal soul-searching had entered the common and uncommon artistic imagination. Rather than represent reality, the inner life of the artist came to the…… [Read More]

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Eric D Weitz a Century of Genocide

Words: 724 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 54536663

Eric D. Weitz, A CENTURY OF GENOCIDE: UTOPIAS OF RACE AND NATION. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003,

Eric D. Weitz's text A CENTURY OF GENOCIDE: UTOPIAS OF RACE AND NATION puts forth the challenging question as to why the 20th century has seen a hideous explosion in the phenomenon of genocide, cross culturally, all over the globe, without any particular grounding in any one continent or nation. To answer this query, Weitz compares a historically and geographically diverse section of four of the past century's genocidal regimes: Stalin's Soviet Union, Nazi Germany, Cambodia under Pol Pot and Bosnia at the close of the century. He uses this comparative approach to demonstrate that although the Holocaust was a horrible event, it was not a unique event. Rather, it was the product of the same sort of historical forces as these other manifestations of genocide. Weitz identifies genocide as a phenomenon…… [Read More]

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Timeline on Gendered Movements Dating From 1700's to Current Century

Words: 1048 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Creative Writing Paper #: 74618351

Women's Timeline

Women's Movement Timeline

The following paragraphs describe eight incredible women who lived from the 1700's through the present. This paper also includes a timeline to better place into perspective these women's incredible effort and their success at initiating change and giving women first, a voice, then, rights equal to those of men.

Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797)

In 1792, Wollstonecraft published the most important piece relating to women's rights, a pamphlet entitled Vindication on the Rights of Women. This work advocated equality of the sexes, and elaborated upon what was later to become the central idea of the Women's Movement across Europe and America. According to scholars, Wollstonecraft "ridiculed prevailing notions about women as helpless, charming adornments in the household" and instead suggested the women should be educated and not be slavish dependents of their husbands. In fact, Wollstonecraft was one of the first women to advocate women's education above…… [Read More]

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Evolution of Hospitals From 18th Century to Present Era

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3516974

History Of Hospitals

The combined arts and sciences responsible for how society cares for its sick and ill has transformed much throughout recorded history. The greatest and most dramatic changes occurred alongside other historic eras that complimented the changes seen in medicine and health care. The purpose of this essay is to examine the metamorphosis of hospitals from the 18th century until today. In this examination I will focus on the extent of these changes being forced by the ideas of professionalism, medical therapy or technology and the overall character of the changes and how they related to greater historic transformations.

Modern medicine was ushered in with modern times, and revolutionary society changes complemented those which occurred within medicine and health management. The 18th century in historic Europe was ripe with ideas of liberty and freedom, contrasting the previous century's of closed and restricted ideas. The Power Point Slide Presentation…… [Read More]

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20th Century U S the War

Words: 433 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30765261

S.A. should intervene to this conflict mainly to insure its positions in the region and to provide "humanitarian aid" to local population struggling for independence. As a result this war turned into war against all Spanish possessions in the Western Hemisphere (including Guam, Puerto Rico and Philippines in the Pacific).

The declaration of war to Germany had a lot of similar premises to the war with Spain. First of all the U.S.A. was an economical donor of Allies in this war, as it declared neutrality after the war began in 1914. But undeclared u-boat war of German submarines, which led to, sank of Lusitania liner and political intrigues with Mexican government to declare war against the U.S.A. were directed on destabilization of American positions and could have serious consequences for the U.S.A. In case Germany won the war. By 1917 Central powers had big chance to win the war, especially…… [Read More]

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Is Class Still a Relevant Label in the 21st Century

Words: 1440 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88292950

it survive in the 21st century?

"Class is to Britain what sex is to teenagers -- more talked about than practiced" (Willetts 1995:1). The fact that Britain is a class-conscious society is taken as a universal given; when virtually any author wishes to use an example of class-stratified society, they look to the UK. The famous play by George Bernard Shaw entitled Pygmalion immortalized the nation as a world in which one's accent could determine one's entire fate. In popular culture, slang and stereotypes relevant to class abound. But should this be taken as a sign that social class still exists, or should it merely be interpreted as vestiges of an older era, ironically translated into 20th century terms? This paper will examine dueling perspectives on class, and finally assess its material reality.

First of all, what is meant by class? According to David Cannadine's work Class in Britain, one…… [Read More]

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18th Century History and the

Words: 729 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53183028

This oil painting is 8 feet tall by 10 feet wide (Fiero 51).

Each of these artists glorified in enormous paintings a hero, theatrically presented, that the common man might identify with. The "Corsican Upstart" that was Napoleon, is shown in propagandistic, larger-than-life style by Gros and David, who first met in 1796 in Italy. These two painters influenced each other and became huge successes through their depictions of the great men of their day in emotional, imaginative ways. Goya, too, used the cult of the individual, the genius and the hero that was prevalent, to demonstrate the sacrifices that the ordinary Spaniard made in defending Spain against the occupying French. In the drawing of Yo Lo Vi" he also attacks the clerics, as they make off with the money, while a mother struggles to save her child nearby. The message that Goya sends is that the common man is…… [Read More]

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Italian Immigration Late 19th to

Words: 3281 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30906641

The biggest reason for this was financial. Farming takes time to sow, grow and harvest, and there was simply not time for that; the Italian immigrant needed to make as much money as he could in the least time possible; farming simply would not work (2008). Farming also implied a certain amount of permanence, which was not the plan for many Italian immigrants (Mintz 2007).

Land in America was also quite expensive. There had been free land in the west that was given out under the Homestead Act, but that was no longer available (2008). The Italians with their agricultural backgrounds became mostly urban people (Oracle 2010). Rapczynski (2008) posits that another reason could have been because farming simply reminded them of the poor conditions that had left behind in Italy and they wanted to do something different. Because of the vastness of the land in America, many Italians considered…… [Read More]

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Lives of Women in the Late 19th

Words: 1594 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35978265

lives of women in the late 19th and early 20th century, including Susan B. Anthony and Ida B. Wells. Specifically, it will analyze the private lives of American women in the late 19th and early 20th centuries - as daughters, wives, and mothers. Did their lives mesh or clash with their participation in the wider public world of education, work, and politics? How so? Women in Victorian times and beyond were expected to conform to society's mores, which did not include rights for women. If a woman stepped outside the norm, she did not "fit" in polite society, and she was often ostracized and abandoned by those around her.


Women in the Victorian age, which lasted from1880 to 1900, were placed on pedestals, as long as they managed to conform to society's dictates about how women should act and dress, took care of their family and their…… [Read More]

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Pro- and Anti-Slavery Movement in the 19th

Words: 751 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63683091

Pro- and Anti-Slavery Movement in the 19th Century American Society

The history of black slavery movement in the American society during the 19th century has become a common theme of debate and discussion between Americans for and against black slavery movement. There have been numerous literary works, essays, and other written works that discuss this primary issue of black American slavery in America during the 1800s. An example of these literary works is an essay by Thomas Jefferson entitled, "Notes on the State of Virginia," and an autobiography by Frederick Douglass entitled, "Narrative of the life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave." These two written works discuss the issue of black American slavery in America, with Jefferson defending and justifying the black slavery movement, while Douglass calls for a radical change and opposition against the said movement. These two written works will be critically analyzed in this paper, and by…… [Read More]

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Analyzing Realism Impressionism and Nineteenth Century Photography

Words: 1013 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13248257

Realism, Impressionism, and Nineteenth-Century Photography

The Village Maidens


Gustave Courbet

Date the Piece was Created

Art Movement and/or Style Media

Realism / Oil Paint

Description and Analysis

This 1852 painting, which sparked the creation of a collection of pictures dedicated to women's lives, depicts the artist's three sisters -- Juliette, Zoe and Zelie -- taking a stroll along the Communal-- a little valley close to Ornans (their native village) (The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2016). Despite nothing of significance being depicted in this painting, it tells a story. Courbet uses a dark and dull color tone and the overall painting is neither overly dark nor overly bright. The weather may be taken to be pleasant and warm, considering the clear sky Courbet portrays in the painting's background. His brush strokes and paint choice impart a realistic texture and tone to the picture. As no activity is shown in the…… [Read More]

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Yellow Wallpaper American Culture at the Turn of the Century

Words: 702 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65202699

Yellow Wallpaper," American culture at the turn of the century,

Consider "The Yellow Wallpaper" as a feminist text. What does the work say about women and American culture at the turn of the century? How does the wife defeat the patriarchal culture represented in the attitude of her husband?

At the beginning of Charlotte Perkin Gilman's short story "The Yellow Wallpaper," a new mother, evidently suffering from postnatal depression, is placed on an enforced 'rest cure' in which she is supposed to have no stimulation of any kind. During the 19th century, intellectual activity was thought to be dangerous for women, particularly in regards to their reproductive capacities. The woman is driven mad by her 'cure' and her lack of an outlet for her creative energies.

The 19th century created an ideal image of middle-class femininity, often called the 'Angel in the House.' This was an image of a woman…… [Read More]

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Education in America the Seventeenth Century Has

Words: 3372 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23845923

Education in America

The seventeenth century has been called, as an age of faith, and for the colonists a preoccupation with religion, as probably right. The religious rebel of the sixteenth century was severe and shaking as its impact was felt both on the continent as well as in America. However, intelligent Americans of the seventeenth century thought and realized that education could, and may be should, be a handmaiden to religion. Yet, humanism was there more than religion in the intellectual diet of the educated Americans 1.

The humanists preceded their work at a stable speed, which, affected education of northern, middle & southern colonies of America. However, many argued that without much attention given to education, and without even realizing that the books comprised illustrations of better life were taught into schools in order to affect the life and mind of students, how could the aspiration of humanism…… [Read More]

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Most Important Discovery Development of the Last Century

Words: 736 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4602447

Discovery / Development of the Last Century

There have been a number of important scientific and technological developments in the last century that have profoundly affected the lives of people all over the world. The 20th century saw the invention of the airplane and mass production of automobiles that signaled a revolution in transportation; delivery of mass-produced electricity into our homes that transformed the way people live; and the invention of transistor and personal computer that triggered the information revolution. While all these developments have contributed significantly in raising the living standards of billions, there was one other discovery of the last century that did much more: it literally saved the lives of billions of people. That discovery was the development of the miracle drug called penicillin. In this essay I shall discuss when and how penicillin was discovered and why I consider it to be the greatest discovery of…… [Read More]

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How Classicism Manifested Itself in the 18th Century

Words: 483 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42906840

Classicism manifested itself in the 18th century. There are five references used for this paper.

There have been a number of cultural styles over the last centuries from Baroque to Classicism to Romanticism. It is interesting to look at Classicism and determine how it manifested itself in the 18th century.


In order to determine the 18th century's manifestation of Classicism, it is important to understand what the term means. Classicism, or Neo-Classicism is used to "characterize the culture of 18th-century Europe, and contrasted with 19th-century Romanticism (unknown, Classicism)." In "art, music, and literature, it is a style that emphasizes the qualities traditionally considered characteristic of ancient Greek and Roman art, that is, reason, balance, objectivity, restraint, and strict adherence to form (unknown, Classicism)."


Ludwig van Beethoven demonstrated Classicism during the end of his life with his string quartets. Beethoven first earned the respect of the Viennese people as…… [Read More]

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Examine Explanations of the Witch Craze of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries

Words: 2959 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94152843

Witchcraft in the 16th & 17 Centuries: Response to Literature

At first glance, a logical 21st Century explanation for the "witch craze" (also known as a witch-hunt) during the 16th and 17th centuries in Europe was based largely upon human ignorance. That is to say, the belief that a sub-culture of the general population performed witchcraft (and other magic-related phenomena), and ate the flesh of children, helped the unenlightened explain the unexplainable, and helped the ignorant deal with the darkness. Witchcraft seemingly established a reason that a person had that bad luck and it explained illnesses, and probably it helped explain natural calamities such as tornadoes, seismic catastrophes and sudden killer bolts of lightning or sheets of rain turned into disastrous flooding. Or it could even explain a stillborn child and a puppy with a broken leg. Somebody put a spell on that poor dog. Mysterious events that had no…… [Read More]

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Women's Rights During the Nineteenth Century Many

Words: 2436 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17176597

Women's Rights

During the nineteenth century, many accomplishments in women's rights occurred. As a result of these early efforts, women today enjoy many privileges. They are able to vote and become candidates for political elections, as well as own property and enjoy leadership positions.

During the early nineteenth century, the women's rights movement came into effect. Women like Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony created many organizations for equality and independence. However, even with these activist groups, victory would not be fast or easy.

Changing social conditions for women during the early nineteenth century, combined with the idea of equality, led to the birth of the woman suffrage movement. For example, women started to receive more education and to take part in reform movements, which involved them in politics. As a result, women started to ask why they were not also allowed to vote.

The Start of the Revolution…… [Read More]

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Native American History in the Twentieth Century

Words: 2203 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16116300

Native American History In the Twentieth Century focuses on the famous novel written by Erdrich Louise called Tracks. This paper focuses on the theme of the novels and links them to the following novels namely, Talking Back to Civilization by Frederick Hoxie, Boarding School Seasons by Brenda Child and Major Problems in American Indian History by Hurtado and Iverson. This paper also highlights the problems, which the Native Indians had to face after the coming of the Europeans.

Native American History In The Twentieth Century

After the Europeans first encounter with Native people living in the New World to the recent years that have followed, the United States Government is trying to serve the Native American population with the best of all needs. Tribal lands, money for better health services, education, good medical facilities, funding programs to fight poverty are all being provided to the Native Americans by the government.…… [Read More]

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Chimu Indians the Fifteenth-Century Spanish Travelers Who

Words: 2836 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 59889176

Chimu Indians

The fifteenth-century Spanish travelers who embarked on voyages of discovery and conquest in the Americas expected to encounter primitive savage races. Instead, they found advanced civilizations with intricately designed cities, complex social hierarchies and accurate methods of calculating calendars. But despite this evidence, the Spaniards used the differences between the two sets of cultural beliefs and practices as proof of the inferiority of the Andean civilizations. Because of this backwardness, the Spanish believed that colonization was needed to bring "civilization" to the new world. Susan Ramirez described this Eurocentrism as a "disregard of others' cultures and identities" (Ramirez, 10-11).

This paper applies Ramirez's critique of Eurocentrism by looking at the civilization of the Chimu, a powerful coastal kingdom in Northern Peru. By looking at the Chimu religion and social structure - as evidenced in their ceramic art and in their architecture - this paper posits that the Chimu…… [Read More]

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Sami Entry Into the 21st Century the

Words: 1840 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5817042

Sami Entry Into the 21st Century

The lives that the Sami lead are so different from the ones that most of the industrialized West lead that we might be inclined to view them as something out of history - a sort of living fossil. But, in fact, their culture is as vital as any of that on earth today and their way of life is both valid and adaptive. This does not mean that they are not currently struggling to adjust to changing circumstances - but this is always true of all cultures as the world changes around us. This paper looks at the challenges faced at this particular historical moment by the Sami people.

We should perhaps begin with a definition of who these people are. For many years called Laplanders, they are now called by the name that they use to refer to themselves. This passage explains the…… [Read More]

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War Imagine Living in 18th Century America

Words: 1414 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41151585


Imagine living in 18th Century America. What would a person encounter during that time period? Would the diverse social and political backgrounds impact a person positively or negatively during this era? Can a person prepare for what may occur with the upcoming Seven Years War? How would the outcomes of this war affect America in general? One will study these issues in depth from the perspective of an individual existing in the past.

During the 18th Century, I experienced a number of things that are worth mentioning. I went to the south at one time and noticed that slavery is an issue. Many of these individuals are poor, and a select few became land owners despite becoming exposed to various diseases. When I saw this I was devastated and wanted to help each person but I could not. However, these people after fifty years of service were promised their…… [Read More]

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Social Justice and the Gospel for Centuries

Words: 1427 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73344662

Social Justice and the Gospel

For centuries, philosophers have puzzled the human condition. Questions abound about why humans act the way they do, why they form groups, what role cultural and social norms have for learning, how societies form, the nature of society, social change, and the way integration and alienation fit in with modern societies. In particular, the changes in urbanization and technology, and access to other cultures, spurred even more study of what it means to be human. Together, these paradigms form a notion of human history in which theories have tried to explain different aspects of human behavior and interaction. However, we can also look at the 20th century and find that there is a disparate interpretation of social justice, and the compatibility of the Gospels toward that goal. This is exemplified, for instance, in the works of the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., who noted: "Injustice…… [Read More]

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Social Sciences Background- for Centuries

Words: 1340 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 67274474

It was originally established in the early 19th century by Auguste Comte who tried to unify history, psychology and economics through an understanding of society as a broad paradigm. Emile Durkheim took this a bit further and focused on the way societies could maintain a sort of integrity within the modern work where past cultural trends (religion, ethnicity, etc.) were no longer the singular part of society. His view, which has become the modern view of sociology, surrounded questions of what binds individuals together as a formal group (society) and what happens to this group both collectively and for the individual. This is a broad discipline as well, and clearly an academic response to the modern age (industrialization, urbanization, secularization, etc.). The field looks at social rules, the way those rules were formed, and the way that individuals coalesce into groups, communities, institutions, and even powerful social organizations that transcend…… [Read More]

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Nineteenth Century the Development of Painting and Photography

Words: 805 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48694643

Nineteenth Century Painting and Photography

Georges Seurat's La Grande Jatte

Georges Seurat was a post-Impressionist painter with a fascination for a mixture of urban life and rural landscape. His painting techniques are usually referred to as avant-garde pieces, with new advances toward depictions of color and light. In his later works, Seurat played with small dabs of color, unmodulating colors in his painting. His color relationships are evident in his later paintings.

The painting of A Sunday on La Grande Jatte (1884-86) depicts this color technique and style usually seen in Seurat's later works. Exhibited at the final Impressionist exhibition in 1886, the painting contrived a number of controversies in 19th century French society. La Grande Jatte is also considered Seurat's greatest masterpiece of his career in art. It is no wonder that the work is considered thus, his dot technique features a vivid amount of colors; there is a…… [Read More]

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Prisons in the 20th Century

Words: 606 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70310884

Penitentiary System

Two Significant Changes to the Penitentiary System during the 20th Century

During the 19th Century prisons were harsh environments that incorporated corporal punishment, striped uniforms and lockstep marching. In 1876 the Elmira Correctional Facility opened in New York. Elmira was the first prison established on the concept of changing behavior instead of punishing behavior. This facility was designed to reform each inmate through an individualized program, discarding meaningless hard labor, regimens of silence, religious and morality lectures and strict compliance attained through cruelty and fear. The programs instituted at the reformatory included courses in ethics and religion, vocational education, and activities such as a band, newspaper and athletic leagues.


Until recently prison healthcare and interest in the health and medical problems of prisoners was under the direction of county sheriffs or prison wardens. With the exception of the Federal Bureau of Prisons, which staffed its medical service…… [Read More]

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The Russian Prisoners in 18th 19th and 20th Centuries

Words: 850 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48718432

Treatment of Prisoners in Russia During the 18th 19th and 20th Century

The treatment of prisoners, and in particular the political prisoners and the prisoners of war over the centuries has been a controversial issue with standards set for handling of such poisoners, yet still these prisoners have not had the best of the conditions required anywhere in the world. This was a contentious issue in the historical Russia, but still remains a concern even in the present day Russian prisons (Gessen M. 2013) and other parts of the world. The paper is inclined towards the 18th, 19th and 20th century prisoners in Russia and how they were treated. It will also divulge the major reasons why these prisoners were subjected to the ill treatment, the editions on the way to prison, the conditions within the prisons and what people said about these prisons through art and other forms of…… [Read More]

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Sing the Body Electric Although the 19th

Words: 585 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Peer Reviewed Journal Paper #: 43607613

Sing the Body Electric

Although the 19th century is often conceptualized as a repressive era, Walt Whitman's poem "I Sing the Body Electric" crackles with sexual electricity. It celebrates the human, physical body in a very positive manner. Whitman points out some very positive physical characteristics all human beings possess. However, as you note, he also points out some very negative aspects of human physical life: "The sprawl and fullness of babes, the bosoms and heads of women, the folds of their dress, their style as we pass in the street, the contour of their shape downwards." As you note, women in particular often had a very difficult life, physically as well as emotionally speaking, in the 19th century. Middle-class women were hemmed in by corsets and constant child-bearing and lower-class women had to suffer heavy physical labor. Whitman attempts to create a complete, all-encompassing picture of the physical body…… [Read More]

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18th Century Literature

Words: 550 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53547055

Ralph Waldo Emerson's Influence on the Poetry of W. Whitman and E. Dickinson

During 19th century American literature, orthodox teachings and values are evident in most literary works, which is an evidence of the strong influence religion has over the American society. It is noted that during this period, a new form of religion is emerging as one of the dominant religious organizations in the West, particularly the Protestant religion. Ralph Waldo Emerson is one example of a 19th century literary poet that influenced his contemporaries with his highly influential works that illustrate his religious background and belief.

Emerson's distinct character of showing his personal religious beliefs in his poem will be discussed in this paper. In line with this discussion, an analysis of two poets will also be discussed in order to show how Emerson's influence has affected each poet's style and theme of poetry. Two poets that have…… [Read More]

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Modernism in Art Triumphed From the 19th

Words: 1312 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85593257

Modernism in art triumphed from the 19th century onward and in the early 20th century virtually changed the way art came to be perceived. From the Abstractionists to the Cubists to the Surrealists to the followers of Dada, the modernists continually reinvented themselves with newer and wilder movements, firmly rejecting tradition and all its preoccupations. It was only fitting, however, that modern artists should break so completely with the past: modern society had split from the old world with the Protestant Reformation, the Age of Enlightenment, the Scientific Revolution, and the Romantic Era, all of which followed one on the heels of the other. This paper will trace the history of the final era -- the modernist -- by examining five works of five different painters of the modernist era: Franz Marc's "Fate of the Animals," Pablo Picasso's "Guitar and Violin," Marcel Duchamp's "found" artwork "Fountain," Salvador Dali's Surrealist masterpiece…… [Read More]

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John Stuart Mill the 19th

Words: 2516 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24655243

Personal usefulness or utility is not required to clash with public usefulness. Usefulness or Utility is often misguided for pragmatism. but, pragmatism is the affinity to encourage certain preferred objective, regardless of the consideration between what is correct and reasonable. Utility is the standard level of being practical, and hence it must take into account not just what would generate a preferred objective, but what would encourage the maximum pleasure, and what is appropriate and reasonable. Mill acknowledges that the theory can be distorted. But he states that, in the event of discord between personal utility and public usefulness, the decisive factor of utility can continued to be used to arrive at a conclusion. (Ryan, 38)

What is the intention to abide by the theory of utility? According to Mill people long for their individual pleasure, no matter the degree of distortion in their own behavior; they wish and emphasize…… [Read More]

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Impressionism Monet's Parasol Based in the 19th

Words: 696 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51131624


Monet's Parasol

Based in the 19th century, impressionism was a type of art that was associated with Paris-based artists. Some characteristics of impressionism include "visible brush strokes, light colors, open compositions, emphasis on lights in its changing qualities, ordinary subject matter, and unusual visual angles" (New World Encyclopedia, 2009). The impressionist style is chiefly defined by "concentration on the general impression produced by a scene or object and the use of unmixed primary colors and small strokes to stimulate actual reflected light" (Pioch, 2006). These characteristics helped define this type of art and artwork that resulted from more artists like Claude Monet, Renoir, Degas and the like (New World Encyclopedia, 2009). Though, according to the Web Museum of Paris, the principal Impressionist painters, among them Claude Monet, "worked together, influenced each other" but, "exhibited independently" (Pioch, 2006). One of the principal painters, Claude Monet, is one of the most…… [Read More]

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Dupont Since Dupont's Beginnings in the 19th

Words: 1024 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 90684539


Since DuPont's beginnings in the 19th century, the company has been continually at the forefront for: innovation, research and development. This is because they were focused on addressing host of different needs in society through: using various techniques to improve the lives of their customers and the different organizations they were working with. As, time went by the corporation continued to innovate and adapt to the various changes they were facing. Evidence of this can be seen with their expansion into a wide variety of areas including: biotechnology and the use of a host of different chemically-based products that are a part of many household as well as industrial items. This is a dramatic shift from DuPont's early beginning as a manufacturer of gunpowder in 1802. ("History of DuPont," 2011) To fully understand how these transformations have taken place requires: examining various technology / telecommunication issues and how other…… [Read More]

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Monkey Trial in the 19th

Words: 382 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50593085

He was willing to risk his livelihood, career, and reputation in the community in the name of science. As a biology teacher he knew that he was ultimately doing the right thing. I find this to be an admirable act and shows a strong belief in the American system of democracy as much as belief in science. Because of John Scopes and the ACLU, the Supreme Court reversed the Butler Act.

I also find it interesting that the reaction to the theory of evolution was so strong that it led to the passing of that law. However, the same thing seems to be happening today, as many Americans continue to deny the theory of evolution. I find it interesting that so many Americans believe in the Bible's creation story as being literal truth and wish to teach it in school instead of in church, almost a hundred years after the…… [Read More]

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How Important Was Neo-Orthodoxy in the 20th Century

Words: 1861 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90714651


The term "neo-orthodoxy" refers to a 20th century movement among Protestant theologians -- in the United States and in Europe -- that emerged following the bloody carnage of World War I. The disillusionment that several Christian theologians -- and millions of others impacted by the War -- experienced led to a rejection of the liberal Christian movement which had urged the adaptation of an ongoing sense of optimism that seemed to cling to the literal translation and understanding of the Bible. Some parts of the Bible simply could not be true, according to neo-orthodoxy, and this point-of-view continues today albeit not under the neo-orthodoxy movement per se.

This paper reviews the tenets of neo-orthodoxy and embraces the writings and the philosophies of notable theologians like Karl Barth, Emil Brunner, Rudolf Bultmann, and Reinhold Niebuhr. These theologians are linked by their understanding of neo-orthodoxy, and by their advocacy of neo-orthodoxy;…… [Read More]

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Southern Economy Century of Reconstruction

Words: 677 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 55025166

The basic premise is that the misfortunes of the South are more complex than simple assumptions would hold. The racial differences are clearly factor, but there is also significant reference to the fact that the South was delayed in absorbing the positive economic implications of this period in world history. While urban centers throughout the world began a meteoric rise in terms of technological, infrastructural and social development, the isolation which the South had achieved by relying upon slave labor for so long had prevented it from gaining these flourishing urban landscapes. Rural decay would instead become an identifying trait of the South.

Wright's article is prompted by a positive transition in Southern economic momentum however, contending that only as recently as the last two decades (from the perspective of 1987) has the South come to realize the long-term plan of Reconstruction. With the major initiatives of the New Deal,…… [Read More]

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Welfare State Over the Past Century the

Words: 1145 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 44579163

Welfare State

Over the past century, the welfare state in the United States has developed into a way of life as more and more people have become dependent upon it, both as consumers and producers of its services. As a result, we live in a large, expensive system of bureaucratic service delivery that consumes a good deal of the wealth created by Americans annually.

As the welfare system has increased in size, it has become increasingly difficult to scale back. In addition, many people have a vested interest in maintaining and expanding it. However, many argue that the need for a welfare state is decreasing and that the welfare state has outlived its usefulness.

Basically, the welfare system does two things. For one, it provides many universal services, such as education, health care and retirement pensions. Secondly, it provides mean-tested payments that support those with little or no income. Unemployment,…… [Read More]

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Urban Govt Over a Century

Words: 1488 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84839316

Patronage jobs allowed local and regional businesses to flourish, offered political viability for minority groups, and ensured welfare services that state or federal funding would not have provided.

However, urban machines also colluded with organized crime, created impenetrable legacies of city boss cabals, and fomented corruption. Voters cast ballots based on the spoils system, diminishing the relevance of democratic freedoms. The patronage system also boosted special interests and prevented businesses from thriving independently of the machine. Around the 1920s, muckrakers began exposing the inner workings of the urban machine. Progressive politicians championed legitimate social welfare reform at the local level, speaking out against government corruption and collusion with big business (Caswell 2001).

The Progressive movement helped to eliminate or at least to diminish the scope of urban machine governments, even though Chicago's would persist well into the 1970s. In other cities like New York and Boston, the strong mayor system…… [Read More]

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19th Amendment

Words: 2336 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99776993


An extensive period in US history has witnessed specific segments of the nation's population (such as females, Blacks, etc.) deprived of voting rights. The female suffrage movement or struggle for winning voting rights for females continued throughout the major part of the 1800s and into the early 1900s[footnoteRef:1]. While a few states allowed female participation in elections, both as contesters and voters, before the 19th Amendment's enforcement, its ratification on 18th August, 1920 ensured voting rights were extended to every woman in America[footnoteRef:2]. Ever since its ratification, US society has universally acknowledged female voting rights. [1: William W. Hodes, "Women and the Constitution" Rutgers L. Rev. 25 (1970): 26.] [2: Carol Lynn Yellin, "COUNTDOWN IN TENNESSEE" American Heritage 30, no. 1 (1978): 12.]

The American Constitution's Nineteenth Amendment accords an equal right to both males and females to vote. It asserts that the federal and state governments shall not…… [Read More]

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Argentina in the 19th Century Gauchos and Cultured City Folk

Words: 663 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26501685


What did Domingo Sarmiento think of Latin America in the 1800s?

As president of Argentina from 1868 to 1874, Sarmiento had a very close-up vantage point from which to draw conclusions about Latin America, and he reported on what he had observed through the book Facundo. It is not rare that a country's president becomes a published author following his term in office -- although modern day presidents and prime ministers use ghost writers and editors -- but Sarmiento's work is unique, personal, and very descriptive albeit his biases are sharply noted.

Sarmiento believed that most of the "barbarism" occurred in the countryside, where the gauchos lived and worked, and he believed that the civilized people tended to live in the cities, not the countryside. "Everything that characterizes cultured peoples" can be found in the city, he wrote. He mentions "European" often as he is describing the "elegant manners"…… [Read More]

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Nineteenth Century Reform

Words: 1948 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1976691

Nineteenth Century Reform

The nineteenth century, particularly between 1825 and the outbreak of the civil war in 1861, the United States was in a state of reform. There were five key reform movements that made themselves present in America in the nineteenth century. There was the Utopianism/

Communitarian Movement, which established an ideal society separate from present politics. Educational reforms were important in the creation of taxes to support the public school system, higher education for adults, as well as mandatory education and attendance. The Temperance Movement urged abstinence from alcohol and the Woman's Rights Movement was vital in the improvement of the life of women politically, socially, and economically. It also included the battle forged for women's suffrage rights. Humanitarianism was improving the lives of those less fortunate.

Reform in the nineteenth century was generated by secular communities, which arose in the mid 1800s. The primary goal of these…… [Read More]

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20th Century Humanities or Modernism Is the

Words: 830 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57766551

20th century humanities or modernism is the assumption that the autonomy of the individual is the sole source of meaning and truth. This belief, which stemmed from the application of reason and natural science, led to a perpetual search for unique and novel forms of expression (Keep, McLaughlin, & Parmar). Thus, it is evident that modernism discarded the Renaissance period's interest in the classical tradition and universal meaning, in favor of a belief in the individual.

The influence of naturalism on modernism is highly evident in its humanistic philosophy, especially in Jean-Paul Sartre's philosophical school of thought, existentialism. In a radical departure from the classical belief in a purposeful universe, created and governed by God, Sartre set out to disprove the existence of God, while simultaneously establishing that only individual free will can define or change the essence of being (Wyatt, 2004). The same emphasis on naturalism and the individual…… [Read More]

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20th Century Political Philosophers in

Words: 515 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75118650



One of the most important technological developments that occurred during the Industrial Revolution was the assembly line. Used in large factories so that more goods could be manufactured in a shorter period of time, assembly lines totally transformed the way people lived and worked. First, the assembly line created a plethora of new jobs, encouraging previously self-sufficient farmers to move to urban centers. Families were occasionally disrupted and old social codes were too. Women who had previously worked on their family farms found themselves toiling away in factories, and in some cases assembly line maximized the division between the genders. In other cases, women entered the workforce alongside of men and therefore minimized the gap between the genders. Second, the assembly line led to unhealthy working conditions in factories. With more regard for profit as a bottom line than humanity, companies neglected safety concerns. Workers started to form…… [Read More]

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History Vietnam and 20th Century

Words: 650 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77060523

Vietnam in the 20th Century

In the year 2012, the country of Vietnam is a united nation which has a Communist government and a people who are predominantly poor. Before this time, Vietnam went through centuries of turmoil up until the war between Vietnam and the United States wherein North and South Vietnam became a single country. What began the process of dividing Vietnam and isolating its people was the colonization of Vietnam by the French government. According to historian Peter Stearns (2008): "History must serve, however imperfectly, as our laboratory, and data from the past must serve as our most vital evidence in the unavoidable quest to figure out why our complex species behaves as it does in societal settings." In a study of the country of Vietnam, it is important to understand the nation's history and events which may have impacted that country's current psychological and sociological makeup.…… [Read More]

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18th Century Art So Why

Words: 325 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25698865

But even as the memory of the terrors that inspired the work have come and gone, the figures in Goya's painting, to a contemporary viewer, come to represent all innocent persons who suffer at the hands of soldiers in wartime. In the face of the haunted, hunted man at the center of the work the viewer of today no longer sees a Spaniard of Goya's time but the face of a victim of any number of the atrocities on the front pages of the news.

Goya's work is propaganda because it was meant to change people's minds and spark anger at the actions of the French soldiers, just as David's work was supposed to encourage the worship of Napoleon. But like all great art, the work has taken on a new life beyond even the conscious intention of the artist in the ways the art acts on the subconscious of…… [Read More]



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