19th Century Essays (Examples)

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Walter Gropius

Words: 2619 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87659751

Walter Gropius

Germany's high culture of the late medieval period was followed by a slow decline. In the seventeenth century the Thirty Year's War wrecked her material and political potential for more than a century. In the late eighteenth century, during a period of political importance, classic German literature was produced in the small princely courts. In the early nineteenth century, a thin layer of highly cultivated individuals began to produce Romantic poetry and music, at a time when Germany as a whole was pervaded by a depressing political reaction, which expressed itself in bitter opposition to economic freedom in the development of commerce and industry.

In contrast to the rest of Europe, in Germany the period between 1816 and 1843, which saw the flowering of its Romantic music and literature also witnessed an ever-increasing proportion of the population engaged in handicrafts. Not only this, but the number of employees…… [Read More]

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Oracle Bones and Traditional China

Words: 2659 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68940250

Oracle Bone and Traditional China

According to ancient writings, the history of China dates back approximately 3,300 years. Studies by modern archaeologists provide evidence of ancient origins in a culture that was flourishing between 2500-2000 B.C. In an area that is now central China and the lower Huang He Valley in northern China. Through centuries of migration, amalgamation and development, a distinctive system of writing, philosophy, art, and political organization came about that is recognized as Chinese civilization, unique to world history because of its continuity of over 4,000 years to today. The Chinese culture has developed a strong sense of their real and mythological origins and from very early times kept voluminous records, resulting in not only knowledge of China's ancient, but of its neighbors as well. As described in mythology, Chinese civilization began with Pangu, the creator of the universe, then according to legend, a succession of sage-emperors…… [Read More]

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History of Contemporary Art

Words: 2307 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87169139

Public Art and Public Spaces

As long as there has been art there has been public art. But this does not mean that public art has always meant the same thing to the people who made it or the community that it was made for. This paper examines four moments in history and four specific artworks as a way of examining how the function of art in public places has changed as well as the ways in which it has not changed, over the centuries. This paper begins at a moment long before many people would place the beginnings of public art - with the Paleolithic drawings on the walls in French caves and ending with the works of Maya Lin. As each moment in time presents a different form of public art, no single, overriding definition of the term will be offered here. Rather, each moment in history and…… [Read More]

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Nature of Inequality Between the North and

Words: 3958 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 83026105

nature of inequality between the north and south, he has to understand the role of technology in the international system. Someone who would say such a thing overlooks the fact that it's not the amount of technology that counts, but how you use it that matters. In the wealthiest western nations, the use of technology has been actively directed by well-regulated capital lending mechanisms. These financial instruments allow inventors, laborers, and merchants to borrow money at interest that can later be repaid within the context of a legal environment that protects property and contracts.

According to Weatherby, the tragedy of the third world has four culprits: dependence on the west, delayed modernization, increasing population, and the unequal distribution of wealth. He argues that even if all third world countries don't possess these qualities; that each possesses two or three of them. If the lack of modernization is to serve as…… [Read More]

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William Black and John Milton

Words: 3194 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 22090688

John Milton and William Blake

John Milton wrote work of poetry during the late 17th century. William Blake wourld write at the end of the 18th century and at the beginning of the following century. One lived during the tail end of the Restoration period and the other lived in the time of the Romantic poets. At a first glance, it would seem that the two poets John Milton and William Blake would have very little in common outside of the fact that they were both writers, both men, and that they were both British. Milton lived more than a century before William Blake and yet their work can be read together and analyzed as a pair of like-minded individuals. Though they wrote in different centuries and within different historic moments, they shared interests in expressing their thoughts on similar themes. Both men questioned the accepted conditions of their days…… [Read More]

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Ireland Is an Island in the North

Words: 2609 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 27686998

Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean, located to the northwest of continental Europe: the CIA helpfully notes that its size is roughly comparable to the American state of West Virginia. Ireland lies directly to the west of England: the two islands are separated by the Irish Sea.

Ireland has a long history, and was known to the ancient Romans as "Hibernia" although the Romans did not colonize Ireland as they did with England. Tradition marks Ireland's conversion to Christianity by Saint Patrick during the Roman period. Shortly thereafter, the first of a series of invasions occurred -- first by the Danes, then by the English starting in the 12th century.

English policy toward Ireland would eventually turn the island into an English colony, effectively, and the Act of Union by the British Parliament in 1800 officially made Ireland part of the United Kingdom. But the lack of…… [Read More]

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Human Beings Make Sense of Things in

Words: 3786 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29364579

Human Beings Make Sense of Things

In the early-1900s, Edmund Husserl sought to provide psychology with a truly scientific basis, not by copying the physical sciences but through the description of conscious experiences. This would be a truly humanistic psychology, grounded in human life and experience rather than materialistic and mechanistic theories like functionalism and behaviorism. Karl Jaspers called for a psychology that would describe phenomena such as "hallucinations, delusions, dreams, expressions, motor activity, and gestures" for the "person as a whole" (Churchill and Wertz, 2001, p. 247). This holistic or Gestalt psychology is dedicated to the search for the authentic self, and to heal the "hollow' men and women of our time who have lost touch with themselves" (Churchill and Wertz, p. 248). Intentionality is one of the key assumptions of phenomenological psychology in which "experience must be grasped holistically and a relationship in which the subject relates to…… [Read More]

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Town Village Development in UK in the Medieval Ages

Words: 3089 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Assessment Paper #: 21897883

Town/Village Development in the UK in the Medieval Ages

Leicester Development in the Medieval Ages

Leicester provides an excellent example of fort-settlement-town-city development through the Medieval Ages. Controlled at different stages by the Romans, Anglo Saxons, Danish and, of course, Great Britain, Leicester shows the combined contributions, primarily of the Romans, Anglo Saxons and British in its development. Realizing the importance of these contributions, the University of Leicester has undertaken various archaeological projects to continually learn about the city's Medieval development and the Leicester City Council has undertaken a considerable preservation project, particularly of the marketplace area. Both the University and the City Council intend to uncover and preserve Leicester's rich history.

Backdrop: British to Roman to Anglo Saxon to Danish to British

Leicester is a city located at 52°38"06"N 1°08"06"W in modern-day East Midlands, Great Britain (Google, Inc., 2006). However, it did not become an organized settlement until it…… [Read More]

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History and Development of Sound Technologies and Sound Design in Film

Words: 11249 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Dissertation or Thesis complete Paper #: 80180588

sound technologies and sound design in Film

Sound in films

Experiments in Early Age


Crucial innovations

Commercialization of sound cinema: U.S., Europe, and Japan

Sound Design

Unified sound in film production

Sound designers in Cinematography

Sound Recording Technologies

History of Sound Recording Technology

Film sound technology

Modern Digital Technology

History of sound in films


Sound Design

Sound Recording Technologies

The film industry is a significant beneficiary of performing arts. The liberal arts combined with latest techniques and advancements experienced a number of stages. The introduction of films and sound in films was a significant development of its times. The introduction of first film along with sound was a unique event and it revolutionized the industry in such a way that it influenced every individual related to the industry to start thinking on creative and innovative grounds for improvements. The stages of films can be identified as silent films…… [Read More]

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Nationalism of Spain and Russia -- Destabilization

Words: 1933 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42263692

Nationalism of Spain and Russia -- Destabilization and Change

This paper discusses how nationalism has been able to handle destabilization and various changing process. The two major countries chosen for this paper include Spain and Russia and their overall growth of nationalist identity will be focused on in this paper to make a thorough and encompassing comparative analyses.

Destabilization and Change - Spain and Russia


According to various scholars, Russia was popularly known for its nationalism that incorporates its culture, fiction and cartoons. The identification or nationalism of Russia shows how western answers and Russian traditions have impacted each other. For the purpose of this comparative paper, the extent of cultural torn that have occurred since the Mongolian yoke will be discussed. The divorce was between the position of anti-westerniser and westernisers. Further illustration will be given that explained how Russia was portrayed by the westerns. Moreover, it also…… [Read More]

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African-American Perspectives on Education for African-Americans Education

Words: 1468 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47009040

African-American Perspectives on Education for African-Americans

Education has been an issue at the forefront of the African-American community since the first Africans were brought to the colonies hundreds of years ago. For centuries, education was forbidden to enslaved Africans in the United States with penalties such as whipping and lynching for demonstrating such skills as literacy. As the abolitionist movement gained strength and the Civil War commenced, more and more enslaved Africans saw education as a sign of freedom and a representation of the many ways in which they were held back yet simultaneously integral to American culture. Two African-American writers, scholars, and leaders, W.E.B. Du Bois and Frederick Douglass, discuss the power and the potential for education in the African-American Community. Douglass wrote his seminal work, his autobiography, in the middle of the 19th century, before the Civil War, Reconstruction, the industrial revolution, and the turn of the 20th…… [Read More]

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Isolation African-American Civil Rights Historically

Words: 2517 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 37834676

Board of Education of Topeka. This case represented a watershed for Civil Rights and helped to signal an end to segregation because it determined that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal" (Warren, 1954). It is essential to note that federal support on this particular issue was only earned after African-Americans decided to use the legislative system to their advantage by taking the segregationist school system of Topeka, Kansas to task. This particular court case was a class action lawsuit filed on behalf of 13 parents whose children were enrolled in the city's school system. This action was highly influential in the African-American struggle for civil rights and to end discrimination because it demonstrated that they had learned the most effective means of fighting this systemic oppression -- by utilizing the system itself, in this instance, the legislative system that ran the country.

By doing so, African-Americans helped to end the…… [Read More]

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Post Modernism What Is Post-Modernism

Words: 3564 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23652445

This comes to only point out the fact that the role of postmodernism is essential because it offers a different perspective through which humans can understand the events taking place around them and can interpret them to provide meanings that would be useful in their own development and in the development of the social being.

One of the important aspects of postmodernism is that unlike other theories that have been advocated throughout the decades, this approach takes into account the human perception of things. The development of this trend was essential because the human individual needed a framework through which it could accept, acknowledge and deal with the changes taking place around it. More precisely, at the end of the 19th century, the issue of industrialization together with the huge developments that were taking place at the level of the political changes, economic burst, and cultural revolutions set the human…… [Read More]

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History of the Modern Era

Words: 1740 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28715355

The history from the Renaissance to the Machine Age was defined by major technical and stylistic advances that allowed for much larger, taller, more elegant buildings, and higher degrees of functionality and architectural expression.

In cultural and scientific matters, the Modern Era was characterized by an increasingly rationalistic trajectory of thought which was based on an ethos of the humanistic exploration of reality and truth. While in a cultural sense religion still played a significant role, the Industrial Revolution as well as the advent of the Machine Age and the predominance of empirical science and the scientific method, had overtaken the norms and values of the rural and agrarian worldview. There were many other factors that played an important role in the scientific culture of this era, including the rise of Capitalism and international trade. This in turn is linked to other concomitant factors such as the use of steam…… [Read More]

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History of the Areas of

Words: 4350 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93612485

It was founded on the knowledge that spurred during the Renaissance and has placed significance on rational thought and cultural emphasis, which was not present before.

Furthermore, with regards to the popularity of Baroque during this period, it is important to note that this style was able to combine the principles of science and the philosophies and doctrines of early Christianity, which has been very prominent in architectures built on such style. During the earlier period, the Renaissance, art was simpler and characterized by simple rhythms. With Baroque, however, a dynamic change has occurred, as art and architecture became more ostentatious and it has shown how art can move from the previous period (Saisselin).

The Scientific Revolution has presented a new perspective and shows a shift from the orthodox. It has also allowed the use of the past in order to create the future. In the field of arts, the…… [Read More]

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Zulu Culture the Past 200

Words: 1505 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 82894715

The research showed that this influence was due in large part to the consolidation of disparate Bantu tribes in southern Africa to forge a veritable empire that comprehended more than 80,000 square miles and half a million loyal followers. The research also showed that gender relations in Zulu culture are male dominated, but Zulu women can gain increased influence and social status through age. Primarily cattle-keepers, the Zulu also engage in various agricultural pursuits as their geographic location allows, but remain tied to their traditional culture and values today in ways that frequently place them at odds with modern Western society.


Adler, L.L. (1993). International handbook on gender roles. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Araujo, L. (2009, March-April). Africa's ultimate currency: Harnessing Africa's oral tradition can help companies gain a foothold on the continent. Communication World, 26(2), 32-


Bond, C. & Gibson, N.C. (2002). Contested terrains and constructed categories:…… [Read More]

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History of Canadian Labour- the

Words: 2713 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 59351269

Thus, some suggest that the competition between the workers was crucial. More precisely "competition between high-wage white workers and low-wage Asian workers explains racial exclusion (...) labor competition was the central feature of ethnic division in the working class, and exclusion was the only viable strategy under these circumstances." (Creese, 1988, 294)

Despite this possible explanation there were other factors as well that determined the white workers to exclude Asians. However, there was a sense of lack of organization at the level of immigrant workers especially because they were considered to have no desire for such an organization. Even so, in some cases, there was also a fear of the extremist workers who were considered to be capable of radicalism (Creese, 1988, 294). Other opinions suggest that economic factors as well as ideological ones are also viable for offering an explanation. In this sense, there were irreconcilable differences in terms…… [Read More]

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Culinary Food History of Russian Cuisine

Words: 1880 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66924413

Culinary Food History Of Russian Cuisine

When one talks about Russia, one should remember that it is a very large country and over a period of time, the nature and constituents of the country has changed. It is also a country that runs over two continents and for a time, existed in three continents. The vast area has brought it to a situation where there are different cuisines in different areas and alterations to the cuisine are even done on a local basis. So, the comment on this cuisine has to be general to be reasonably accurate.

There are four aspects that have been discussed in this article, and we shall go from one to the next.

Geographical location of Russia and why it have an affect on the Russian cuisine?

When a thought comes of a Russian kitchen what are the first associations that one gets? Is it Vodka…… [Read More]

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Terrorism Has a Long and Violent History

Words: 3383 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12639816

Terrorism has a long and violent history and incidents of terrorism have been recorded from at least 2,000 years ago. Acts of terrorism have included political assassinations, violent political revolutions, hijackings, skyjackings, and bombings intended to attract attention, shock, intimidate and instill fear. Before the 911 terror attacks the threat of terrorism, though always a potential danger, was of an episodic nature, and seemed to be under control. The devastating attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11, 2001, however, have brought terrorism to the center stage of world politics and exposed the vulnerability of soft civilian targets to a small but determined group of terrorists. The issue of terrorism and home security now dominates the foreign policy of most countries including the United States. The focus on terrorism has also forced people to think deeply about its root causes, which may have historical, cultural, political,…… [Read More]

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Al Thani Family Ruled Qatar From the

Words: 1865 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31514330

Al Thani family ruled Qatar from the mid-1800s. It slowly changed itself from a poor British territory renowned mainly for pearling into an independent state with large oil and natural gas revenues. The Qatari economy was weakened during the late 1980s and early 1990s, by a constant tapping off of petroleum revenues by the Amir, who ruled the country from 1972 onwards. His son, the present Amir HAMAD bin Khalifa Al Thani conquered him in a bloodless takeover in 1995. Qatar solved its very old border clashes with both Bahrain and Saudi Arabia in 2001. Oil and natural gas revenues make Qatar to have one of the utmost per capita incomes in the world. Oil and gas report for more than 55% of GDP, around 85% of export earnings, and 70% of government revenues. Qatar has a per capita GDP of about 80% through oil and gas and it is…… [Read More]

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Words: 4442 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6119112


Early History and Discover

Current artifacts, including cave paintings, suggest that human beings inhabited Brazil more than 300,000 years ago. European explorers found only a small indigenous population when they arrived in the land, but archaeological records indicate that there were large settlements in other areas, which could have been substantially reduced by smallpox and other diseases brought in by the European explorers.

These early indigenous inhabitants were classified into a sedentary population, who spoke the Tupian language and similar cultural patterns, and a nomadic population. Historians assume that there were approximately a million of these early peoples scattered throughout the territory. Some historians believe that these aborigines were native American tribes, composed of the Arawaks and Caribs in the north, the sedentary Tupi-Guarani of the east coast and the Amazon Valley, the Ges of the eastern and southern sides, and the Pano in the west. These tribes were…… [Read More]

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History of Drug Addiction Both Psychological and Physical

Words: 3225 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 21235782

addiction over the past several decades, that addiction, specifically drug addiction, has been present in society for most of mankind's presence on earth. Such addiction may have been known by other descriptions and may not have been known to be the result of something exactly identified as a drug but such use was still likely an addiction. The use of drugs has been recorded by historians for thousands of years (Crafts, 2009). Wine was used by the early Egyptians and narcotics and marijuana have been noted to be used as far back as 4000 B.C. But it was not until the 19th century that the active ingredients in drugs were extracted. For many years many of the drugs that are now heavily regulated and controlled were freely available and prescribed by physicians. There easy availability resulted in many becoming addicted to their use and by the early1900s there were an…… [Read More]

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History of the Native American Indians Is

Words: 4219 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67047316

history of the native American Indians is a long and colorful one. The first Indians arrived on the North American continent subsequent to the end of the Ice Age approximately 15,000 years ago. These early Indians arrived from Siberia as they passed through Alaska and gradually settled throughout what is now the United States. These early arriving Indians were hunter-gatherers and, as a result, they traveled freely across the vast North American continent and by 8,000 years ago had spread as far east as the eastern seaboard.

As indicated, the early Indians were hunter-gatherers and many of the tribes remained such until the early 1900's but a select few tribes began farming. The Indian tribes electing such life style were centered in present day Mexico City and by the time that this area began to be explored and settled by Europeans the farming life-style of these Indian tribes had been…… [Read More]

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Public Health Resources 1& 8226 Information About Country

Words: 1516 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37364281

Public Health Resources

1• Information about country, state, and national public health resources

Public health is the bigger science of protecting and improving the health of communities by providing services based on education, healthy lifestyles, and other forms of medical and paramedical services. Public health professionals tend to analyze the health issues of individuals, family and community. However public health also involves the control of epidemics, causalities and calamity reactions. Thus public health professionals try to prevent problems from happening or re-occurring. The basis of the delivery of public health services is on the "Public Health Laboratory Practice, Public Health Policy and Practice." ("What is Public health," 2011) These practices are however very costly and is not adapted by private agencies. ("What is Public health," 2011)

However the evolution of public health concept was made from very early times but the U.S.A. is a capitalist country with private participation in…… [Read More]

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Corporate Roles in Environmental Ethics

Words: 5925 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 39363295

Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Ethics

Abstract/Introduction -- No one can argue that the international business community is becoming more and more complex as a result of globalism. In turn, this complexity is driven by an increasing understanding of sustainability, going "green," and bringing ethical and moral philosophy into the business community. British Telecom, for instance, noted in 2007 that it had reduced its carbon footprint by 60% since 1996, setting itself a target of 80% reductions by 2016 (Hawser, 2007). Francois Barrault, CEO, BT Global Services, said that by supporting sustainability his company hoped not only to reduce its carbon footprint but also to attract younger people who prefer to work for environmentally and socially responsible companies. He didn't always think that way, though. Barrault said that when he first met former U.S. vice president and environmental activist Al Gore, who showed him pictures of icecaps melting, he thought…… [Read More]

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Health Care Program Past Current Future

Words: 2421 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 52306007

Health Care Past, Current, And Future

The health of any nation should be a top priority for leaders and elected political representatives, but in the United States it took several centuries for the nation to begin to come to terms with providing health care for its citizens. This paper covers the gradual implementation of health care services and doctor training facilities in the U.S., and also covers the recent attempt by President Barack Obama to reform a chaotic, poor-functional and expensive health care system. Thesis: It is a scandal of massive proportions that a well-functioning, citizen-friendly universal health care system cannot be instituted in America, the world's most democratic superpower. Until the divisive and toxic political climate can be reformed, there is no chance of major reforms -- or for universal health care coverage -- in these United States.

Past Health Care Services -- Early America

Health care in colonial…… [Read More]

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Austria Which Influenced Hitler and

Words: 5425 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6458210

During this period, Austria also continued industrial expansion, but at a slower pace than Germany.

With growth came further instability. Investment and founding of new organizations exploded since 1867, with over 400 new corporations being founded (Pulzer 1964) from 1867 to 1872. This was the age of the Gruender, which meant "entrepreneur," but also came to be associated with financially shaky schemes which resulted in the bursting of a speculative bubble in 1873.

The period of the Liberal government spanned from 1867 to 1879, a period during which Austria lost its power and prestige, unemployment and economic insecurity reigned, and newly-vociferous minorities were exerting their rights to equality in language and culture. In the meantime, Germany seemed to be growing from success to success, as its liberalization engendered national unity and a growth in wealth and military power.

Conservative Ascendancy in Austria

The nature of the conservatives in Austria was…… [Read More]

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Republicanism in British America the

Words: 1963 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58969004

Therefore, the next stage in the evolution of the island can be characterized as a need for overcoming the annexation attempts from China and afterwards Japan. The situation however became an issue of international politics as Europeans became involved through the Unequal Treaties which "which opened designated ports in China to foreign trade. In addition, as a result of the treaties' terms, European powers were granted extraterritorial jurisdictions in the treaty ports themselves, so that Europeans were obligated to abide by their own legal system and would only be tried by their own consular officials" (McDevitt-Parks, 2007).

The island was in itself at the disposal of the several influences which exercised their authority particularly because the aboriginal people did not have the capacity to defend themselves, nor were they able to stand against the desires for supremacy of China, Japan, and other European countries such as the French. Therefore, the…… [Read More]

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Industrial Revolution Started in Britain

Words: 1338 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51905150

The names of British factory cities would soon spread around the world symbolizing the peak of industrialization: Liverpool, Leeds, Glasgow, Sheffield, Birmingham and especially Manchester. In order to get a better image of the city's growth and development, we will turn to statistics once again. In the 1770s, Manchester had a population of about 25, 000 and by 1850, less than a century later, its population had increased to over 350, 000 people. However, this population boom brought about the dramatic worsening of health conditions in urban areas as work conditions and long hours put a toll on working people who were sometimes as young as eight years old. In addition, bad sewage disposal, air and water pollution as well as the diseases which resulted from this insalubrious environment caused an increase in the rate of infant mortality and shorter life expectancy. Along with poor health conditions, the toll roads,…… [Read More]

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Catholic Religion Over the Last

Words: 1112 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 1961606

Of course, since these views are based on those who are high-ranking members of the church, Hennesey's narrative is somewhat biased, yet it does provide an excellent overview of many important topics related to American Catholicism.

Hurley, M. (2002). The unholy ghost: Anti-catholicism in the american experience.

Huntington, IN: Sunday Visitor Press.

In this carefully-documented study of prejudice against Catholics in the United States, Bishop Mark Hurley examines the entire history of prejudice from the 1700's and up to the present day. There are three sections to this work, being 1776 to Vatican II, post-Vatican II and a final section which focuses upon the issue of abortion and how American Catholics feel about this very controversial topic.

McAvoy, T.T. (1942). The catholic church in the United States between two wars. Review of Politics, 4(4), 409-431.

Although somewhat dated, this essay examines in great detail and with much insight how the…… [Read More]

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Invention of Electron Microscopes and

Words: 787 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66390279

One of the main differences between the two texts is that language has changed to reflect shifts in gender norms. Notably, the newer version omits the word "obey" for the woman's marriage vows. Likewise the phrase "Who geveth this woman to be maried unto this man?" is also removed in the current version.

In spite of key differences related to tone and gender, many features have changed little in the Book of Common Prayer marriage ceremony. The exchange of rings is a similar feature. Also, the purpose of marriage is outlined to mention procreation in both texts. Heterosexual language prevails.

Thus, the general structure of the two documents are remarkably similar and shows that the Anglican Church has attempted to remain true to the original document. For example, a pithy introduction is soon followed by the exchange of vows and the "declaration of consent." The main differences between the two…… [Read More]

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Technology on Human Life Cellular

Words: 918 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 80234262

This also has been true throughout recorded history but, like other aspects of technological progress, it exploded after the Industrial Revolution (Evans, 2004).

Human warfare became much more deadly during the late 19th century when progress in explosives, metallurgy, and industrial processes allowed the development of giant cannons, artillery, and naval guns with tremendous destructive potential (Evans, 2004). By the end of World War I, mechanized weapons such as the machine gun and the battle tank had revolutionized the entire concept of warfare. During the rest of the 20th century, modern industrial methods and production capacity (propelled by another major global war) allowed the development of a simple aircraft powered by a bicycle foot pedal into supersonic aircraft within half a century (Evans, 2004). Ironically, medical technology also tends to accelerate during wartime, driven by the need to treat traumatic injuries and prevent infection (Evans, 2004).

Peacetime industrial progress also…… [Read More]

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Malaysia Is Characterized by the

Words: 14609 Length: 53 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 76653907


Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is two-fold as follows:

1. To identify the optimum approach and metrics for measuring the efficiency of Malaysian banks;

2. To analyze archival financial performance data using the optimum approach for measuring the efficiency of Malaysian banks to determine historic efficiency levels in an effort to identify opportunities for improvement in the future.


Importance of the Study

The importance of the study directly relates to the need to identify effective ways to measure the efficiency of Malaysian banks. The evaluation of bank efficiency, though, introduces a number of constraints that are related to the nature and function of financial intermediaries, particularly in view of the fact that banks provide products and services that are dissimilar to those found elsewhere. As a result, one of the most important issues involving the investigation the efficiency of the banking sector concerning the…… [Read More]

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Origin and Evolution of the

Words: 914 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88541955

In that respect, it was racism and social exclusion that isolated African-American musicians of those eras and led to the evolution of different music. In principle, African-American music of the early 20th century evolved in the same way as Darwin's famous finches of the Galapagos Islands: community isolation.

Substantially because of the effects on African-American soldiers of returning to a segregated society after their combat experiences during Word War II, racial pride popularized expressions of unity and terminology of self-elevation such as the use of "Man" among and between African-Americans. It is likely that this intensified and grew tremendously in common usage by the onset of the Civil Rights Era of American 20th Century History. In principle, African-Americans probably used "Man" as a specific way of rejecting and putting to rest the long-used pejorative "Boy" used for generations to subjugate African-American males regardless of their chronological age or their relative…… [Read More]

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Edward Robinson 1794-1864 Was an

Words: 2897 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 67527594

Dr. David Livingstone seemed to epitomize this view, "These privations, I beg you to observe, are not sacrifices. I think that word ought never to be mentioned in reference to anything we can do for Him….Can that be a sacrifice which is simply paid back as a small part of a great debt owing to our God, which we can never repay… it is a privilege."

With this attitude of sacrifice for the greater glory, and it was certainly that for many who endured pain, pestilence, disease, hunger and bodily harm, also came a certain attitude about modernizing and bringing the native populations into the modern world through Christ. In places as diverse as Hawaii, the Philippines, central Africa, and even the Muslim world, these well-meaning missionaries invariable also brought with them cultural baggage and xenophobia. While wishing to save the population from the fires of Hell through Christianity, there…… [Read More]

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Blackwell -- the Industrialization of

Words: 1084 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 1651907

It was simply not modern or wealthy enough to withstand such strong economic pressure. In 1917 the first of two major coups occurred; the Tsar was imprisoned and later executed, a Civil War erupted eventually resulting in the emergence of the Bolshevik Party under Vladimir Lenin; the world's first socialist state.

The major thrust of the new government was to completely revise the economy of the massive state -- breakup landed estates, seizure of agricultural surpluses, but an economic period of 8 years (1921-29) that was more market socialism. However, once Lenin died and the power struggle for ultimate control went to Joseph Stalin, a vast and rapid reindustrialization took place. Stalin believed that the only way to retain a Soviet State was to modernize and the only way to modernize was to collectivize all agriculture so there would be enough food and surplus to fuel the drastic measures necessary…… [Read More]

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Hagia Sophia the Triumph of

Words: 1536 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 38082412

But restoration efforts are hampered by the political and religious struggles that still define the area. The building is deeply symbolic for Christians, Muslims, secular Turks, and historical conservationists. Architectural historian Robert Ousterhout points out that "each group looks at Hagia Sophia and sees a totally different building" (qtd. In Bordewich 5-6).

In his article, Bordewich examines the multiple agendas and suspicions of the groups seeking to control the restoration of the building, bemoaning the fact that the building is currently stuck in an "ideological no-man's land" (6). In the meantime, one of the premier examples of extreme architecture, Eastern Roman power, Christian iconography, and Muslim decorative arts falls prey daily to the natural forces of decay, and runs the risk of being destroyed utterly by an earthquake or even by religious extremists. Even the grand ambitions of Justinian and the architectural genius of Anthemios cannot stem those forces. Instead,…… [Read More]

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Sleeping Giant Awakens China Known

Words: 2645 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 53750177

This paradigm shift can best be understood by looking at a Chinese tradition dating back centuries. However, to understand modern China, we must also understand the basis for Chinese culture -- Confucianism. It was Confucianism, though, that dominated ancient Chinese history as a socio-religious philosophy. The trend towards philosophical underpinnings, too, was part of Ancient China's view of law, order, and state control. Confucianism is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system based on the teachings of Confucius. It is a system that focuses on social, moral, political, and philosophical through, and stresses the important of education and the actualization of the individual. In combination, individuals then are able to govern the state by morality and virtue, rather than extreme coercion or violence (Sprunger). Unlike many religions, Confucianism expects to be part of the political/legal process and governance is part of the expectations of service by the populace. A basic sense…… [Read More]

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Graphic Art it Is Possible

Words: 2185 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 44818450

The codes appeared on the screen and were read by trained typographers. In 1970, the Merganthaler Linotype VIP became the first phototypesetter to incorporate a minicomputer with programmable software that could be used to process raw text within the output machine (Barlow & Eccles, 1992).

The graphic artist and designer had been losing some of their credibility in relationship to the fine artists up to the 1970s, because typesetting became a mechanical process that required technical training rather than artistic talent. Yet illustrators continued to be considered artists. However, several graphic designers proved such beliefs biased and irrelevant. Starting in the 1950s, Alan Fletcher used pop art, humor and bold and colorful works to develop new works of art. David Carson, a typographer and graphic designer, established his expertise in the 1980s for experimental typeface design. Completely developing his own approach, he established new rules of design and typography and…… [Read More]

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Sociology Racism Throughout History Racism

Words: 2011 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1062240

Both what make up a race and how one recognizes a racial difference is culturally determined. Whether two individuals consider themselves as of the same or of different races depends not on the degree of similarity of their genetic make up but on whether history, tradition, and personal training and experiences have brought them to think of themselves as belonging to the same group or to different groups (Spickard, Fong and Ewalt, 1995).

Prejudices, stereotypes, insults, pejorative labels and other things are usually articulated in racist communications. Explicit racism helps to legitimize individual and collective action that creates and sustains inequality and oppression between social groups. The history of mankind provides thousands of examples of racist violence: genocide, colonialism, repressive immigration policies and all kinds of discriminatory behavior. This kind of racism is explicit and visible. Unfortunately, racism can also be invisible. Racism is totally embedded in the social structures…… [Read More]



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