Leadership Research Models of Leadership and Management Research Paper

Excerpt from Research Paper :

Leadership Research

Models of leadership and management

Comparison and contrast of leadership models

Application of leadership model: Case of Mark Zuckerberg

Table 1- Leadership Table

Leadership Research

Leadership in public and private sector businesses is important for the growth of these businesses. Of late, many researchers have thoroughly investigated the role leadership in promoting businesses. Researchers have also tried to explore the common characteristics of global business leaders that have led their businesses to successful heights. Different models of effective leadership in corporations have also been drafted. One major aspect of leaders being explored in their ability to inspire people surrounding them and use this inspiration to achieve results that could be achieved without having complete trust of followers. While followers might be hard to make for a leader, and yet harder to retain, few researchers have put forth consolidated models of inspirational leaders that effectively make and retain followers. Two such models that will be used to describe the leadership qualities and relevant model of leadership are those presented by Goffee and Jones (2001). The other leadership model was presented by Drucker (2004). Both these models aim at [resenting some common attributes and modus-operandi of successful inspirational leaders that displayed exceptional skills and ability to make followers in their respective professional field.

In this paper, two models of leadership will be discussed, those presented by Drucker (2004) and Goffee & Jones (2001). The main elements of these models will be discussed in section II of this paper, followed by enlisting comparison and contrasts elements of both these models of leadership. Section III of this paper will apply these models to one of the internationally recognized business leader from the U.S. Mark Zuckerberg has been selected as the leader whose style of leadership will be discussed in light of the two leadership models being discussed earlier. Section IV will include a table that outlines the main differences in leadership style based on aforementioned models. The table will also include leadership qualities of Zuckerberg and their coherence with leadership models discussed earlier. After going through these details, the paper will include a concluding statement as well.

II- Models of leadership and management

In addition to traditionally quoted leadership qualities of energy, authority, and strategic direction, Goffee & Jones (2001) have identified four additional qualities of being an inspirational leader. These four qualities have been summed up as follows.

Revealing weakness: Goffee and Jones have observed that an inspirational leader is one who is able to share or reveal any of his/her weakness. This is said to promote human side of leadership and management function. The leader by admitting that he/she is weak in an area admits in front of followers that he/she is also a human. This provides a reason for the followers to connect to the leader. Nonetheless, the authors do not fail in noting that weakness being revealed by the leader should be a non-essential one, otherwise the leader may appear unprofessional. In the words of researchers, "don't expose a weakness that others see as fatal." [footnoteRef:2] Becoming sensor: The researchers argued that developing a sense of reading subtle cues and information not directed towards the leader is also an essential quality that inspirational leaders need to have. Thus, an inspirational leader should be good at making educated guesses. Tough empathy is also one quality that inspirational leaders have in common. This implies that leaders should have the quality of providing growth opportunities to their followers. "Real leaders empathize fiercely with their followers and care intensely about their people's work." [footnoteRef:3] Being different A leader should capitalize upon what is different and unique in him/her. This allows the followers to get inspired from the leader in developing a bond. This quality also sets the leader apart from the crowd. Goffee and Jones (2001) based their inspirational leadership model on these qualities i.e. sharing weakness with followers, becoming good at sensing things, displaying concern about employees through tough empathy, and remaining somewhat unique as compared to others. [2: Goffee & Jones (2001). Why Should Anyone Be Led by You? IEEE Engineering Management Review. ] [3: Ibid. P-1. ]

Peter F. Drucker in his article "What Makes an Effective Executive" sets out eight simple rules that effective leaders follow in addition to traditionally acknowledge leadership qualities of being strategic thinker and visionary. 1- Ask what needs to be done? This implies that a true leader is only concerned with important things while disregarding those that are unimportant for the organizational to do. The example of Jack Welsh as CEO of General Electric (GE) is cited to substantiate that as Jack closed down all businesses of GE that did not have the potential of becoming number one or two. [footnoteRef:4] Thus, a leader focuses efforts on what could make it number one on respective profession. Second rule for a leader is to ask what is right for the enterprise. Thus, rather than focusing on one stakeholder of enterprise, that may be the owners or employees, the leader does what is best for the whole organization progress and survival. Converting knowledge into action plans is also one of the most distinguishing rules that effective executives follow. This implies that effective leader is action oriented utilizing the knowledge he/she has. Owning responsibility through fixing accountability is also another rule that effective leaders follow. Communication is one action that leaders take effectively. From goal setting to need assessment, executives take responsibility of communicating with others. Opportunities hunting are more attractive to leaders rather than problem solving. The meetings held by effective leaders are only productive meetings having clear goals. And lastly, effective leaders are those who believe in teamwork rather than individuals. We not I is the main rule that drive efforts of leaders as they prioritize group over individual need. [4: Drucker, P.F. (2004). What makes an effective executive? Harvard Business Review. P-15. ]

Comparison and contrast of leadership models

Goffee and Jones (2001) have adopted a more 'tacit' and 'informal' method to highlight the basic qualities of an inspirational leader. Their emphasis is more on charisma and charm of a leader than the actual results that the leader is expected to deliver. This does not imply that charismatic and inspirational leaders, as proposed by Goffee and Jones (2001) are not good at delivering results but it is that the main emphasis of these leaders is in empowering others. The qualities set out by the authors are also more intangible than tangible. For instance, sharing weaknesses and being sensitive to surrounding information is an informal and intangible quality that an inspirational leader possesses. On the other hand, Drucker (2004) presented a model of 'effective leadership' rather than one that also generates thousands of followers. The eight rules that Drucker presented are more tangible and objective in nature as compared to the ones presented by Goffee and Jones (2001).

III- Application of leadership model: Case of Mark Zuckerberg

It seems that each business leader fits into more than one leadership model. Mark Zuckerberg is one of the most successful business leaders that recent history has produced. He is the co-chairman, founder, and CEO of Facebook at age 29 and ranks 36 in Forbes 400 billionaires list with an estimated worth of $13.3 B. [footnoteRef:5] Mark Zuckerberg was deeper and systematic in admitting his weakness and that was regarding the management experience. Zuckerberg acknowledged this weakness by bringing in Sheryl Sandberg as Chief Operating Officer (COO) of Facebook. [footnoteRef:6] By bringing in Sheryl in Facebook, Zuckerberg also displayed the second quality observed by Goffee & Jones and that was sensing. Mark Zuckerberg sensed well that if Facebook needs to resist the hostile bidding of companies such as Yahoo [footnoteRef:7] and others and also bring strategic direction, it will have to rely on industry experts. Following is a table drafted by placing leadership factors presented by Drucker (2004) as well as Goffee and Jones (2001). Mark Zuckerberg also displayed the fourth element called 'being different' of Goffee-Jones model. By dropping out of Harvard Graduation as a junior, [footnoteRef:8] Zuckerberg was able to develop the 'face-mash' idea into Face-book. It was plainly being 'different' from rest of the college graduates and trying his luck with entrepreneurship. The first rule of Drucker model (Ask what needs to be done) was followed by Zuckerberg when he decided to bring in a senior management expert in form of Sheryl Sandberg. Since he knew that all cannot be accomplished by Zuckerberg alone, a seasoned management expert was brought into the company. The knowledge base of Zuckerberg was converted into action plans since the start. Zuckerberg firstly launched 'facemash' as a test website and after the success developed codes for 'Face-book'. This implies he has been an avid action oriented leader. He has also set up an exceptionally empowered team at Face-book; this represents his leadership style of developing people, being tough empathic regarding employees, [5: Forbes. (2013). The World's Billionaires: Mark Zuckerberg. . ] [6: Brio, M.M. (2013). Think like Zuck: How…

Sources Used in Document:


Brio, M.M. (2013). Think like Zuck: How Leadership diversity Sparks Innovation. Forbes Magazine. Retrieved from: [http://www.forbes.com/sites/meghanbiro/2013/01/27/think-like-zuck-how-leadership-diversity-sparks-innovation/]

Forbes. (2013). The World's Billionaires: Mark Zuckerberg. Forbes Magazine. Retrieved from: [http://www.forbes.com/profile/mark-zuckerberg/]

Drucker, P.F. (2004). What makes an effective executive? Harvard Business Review, 58-63.

Goffee, R., & Jones, G. (2001). Why Should Anyone Be Led by You? IEEE Engineering Management Review, 29(1), 94-100.

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